단순언어장애아동· 경계선지능언어발달장애아동· 일반아동의 쓰기지식 특성 비교
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- A Comparative Study on the Characteristics of Writing Knowledge among Children with Specific Language Impairment, Those with Borderline Intelligence-Language Impairment, and Normal Children
The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the characteristics of writing knowledge among three groups of school-aged children: those with specific langauge impairment (SLI group), those with borderline intelligence-language impairment (BI-LI group), and normal children (NC group). A total of 101 elementary school children in grades from four to six were recruited from Chonbuk province and three groups of 56 children were finally selected to participate in this study. Children in the SLI group (n=16) had an IQ above 85 on K-WISC-III performance scale, an IQ below 80 on K-WISC-III verbal comprehension factor index, and a score below -1.25SD on Test of Problem-Solving(TPS); those in the BI-LI group (n=14) had an IQ in range from 70 to 84 on K-WISC-III performance scale, an IQ below 80 on K-WISC-III verbal scale, and a score below -1.25SD on TPS; those in NC group (n=26) had an IQ above 85 on K-WISC-III performance scale, an IQ above 80 on K-WISC-III, and a score above -1SD on TPS.
All the participants were asked to write stories after looking at the picture "Farm", as well as after listening to a story "Enju and the Animals". Their writings were evaluated in terms of three types of writing knowledge (Propositional, Strategic, and Tacit). Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test with Duncan's post hoc test and Pearson Correlations.
The major findings for each of the research questions were as follows:
First, the NC group scored significantly higher in Propositional Knowledge than did either the SLI group or the BI-LI group. The SLI group scored significantly higher in Language Knowledge, a subtype of the Propositional Knowledge, than did the BI-LI group. For all the groups, the score in Declarative Knowledge was higher than the scores either in Language Knowledge or in Text Knowledge.
Second, the NC group scored significantly higher in Strategic Knowledge than did either the SLI group or the BI-LI group. There was, however, no statistically significant difference in Strategic Knowledge between the SLI group and the BI-LI group.
Third, the NC group scored highest in Tacit Knowledge (that is, attitudes toward writing) and the BI-LI group did lowest; there was no statistical difference in Tacit Knowledge among the groups.
Fourth, there were significant correlations between language comprehension and writing knowledge or between language expression and writing knowledge for the total group, but not for each of the groups.
Fifth, Propositional Knowledge and Strategic Knowledge, respectively, correlated significantly with the total Writing score but Tacit Knowledge did not.
These results suggest that there are some differences in writing characteristics between the SLI and BI-LI groups, whereas previous studies imply that there are more similarities than differences between the two groups. The results also indicate that further studies on spoken and written language of the SLI and BI-LI children need to be conducted for developing intervention programs which are appropriate for such children.
Keyword : borderline intelligence language disorder, specific language impairment, writing knowledge
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