樂安邑城民俗마을의 住空間 變容과 保全에 關한 硏究

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This study examines and analyzes transformation of traditional dwelling space by residents at Nagan folk village of six traditional folk villages in Korea which completed remodelling from conservative view and is to suggest new conservative methods to apply it to the five folk villages which began the secondary remodelling work by finding out conservative method collecting transformation phenomena. Residents' transformation of individual dwelling space is progressive and accumulative phenomena and such a process damages spatial structure of folk village gradually and it is urgent to present a new conservative direction which can collect conservation and transformation in the conflict relationship.
Methods and contents used to accomplish the above purposes include these ; first, research problems are set through preceding researches, concept of folk village, background of its designation, its conservation and maintenance, second, aspects and factors of changes with the space within Nagan folk village are examined, third, transformation and actual conditions of Nagan folk village are analyzed, fourth, conservative methods of Nagan folk village based on causes of changes of the space within Nagan folk village are sought and finally results of synthesizing and arranging the above are as follows:
First, there was no castle when Nagan folk village was built and it was merely small village arranged centering around road, but as it was emphasized as a point of strategic importance, castle wall was built and the government office and military facilities were established. In the late period of the Joseon Dynasty, as central power was weakened and its importance as a strategic point was declined, private houses outside the folk village were extended to the inside of castle. The whole structure of the village was not greatly changed through the modern society, but disappearance of village components and change of its basic structure like destruction of the castle were continued not to be restored to the former condition spontaneously. It was considered that it was caused by social demographic characteristics of the folk village which was deteriorated and environmental factors that it was changed into sightseeing place.
Second, extraction of import elements and evaluation of import element space were conducted as the ways of examining transformation of external space. First, visitors were asked to indicate import elements and resulting import elements indicated were total 12. Import elements indicated by visitors were photographed and 15 typical elements were selected and as a result of inquiring them to architectural students, that showed high preference over five points was house 1, road and fence 2, those had low preference below 3 points was street facilities, phone booth, vehicle and vending machine 1. As a result of performing cluster analysis of preference mean, four were clustered and results of evaluating them showed that the highest mean value of 12 import elements in psychological items was found functional and the highest value by evaluation items was analyzed as road 1 in aesthetics, vending machine 2 in harmony, road 1 in traditionality and signboard 1 in affinity.
As a result of cluster analysis based on mean value of psychological evaluation items, composition of five clusters was found and according to characteristics by cluster, cluster A (house 2) belonged to transformation of external appearance from dwellers' demand of dwelling life based on dwellers' convenience, cluster B (road 1, signboard, vending machine 2) and cluster C (store, street facilities, phone booth) were installed on the roadside and alley as commercial elements for visitors' convenience. Cluster D (guide gate 1, guide gate 2, main gate) was also installed for the visitors' convenience and cluster E (vehicle, vending machine 1) used heterogeneous materials and forms due to damage of external space because of dwellers' convenience living within the folk village.
Therefore, it was found that import elements extracted from Nagan folk village were installed for the commercial purposes and visitors' convenience.
Third, as a result of examining changes in layout, plane, mass, structure, materials and installation of each house as the ways of analyzing transformation and actual conditions of dwelling space at Nagan folk village, transformation of site and space was caused by changes of kind of business and scale, dwellers' aging, life convenience and wills based on analysis of their social demographic characteristics.
Plane transformation occurred through extension, addition and change of use of spatial components. Transformation of these components changed plane forms and mixed form was mainly found, followed by internal adjustment and addition types. Internal adjustment type of spatial structure was divided into two as a transformation of plane, additional type was reduced and mixed type was transformed into biased type. Such a transformation was caused by change in life pattern into western style of dwellers and their demand for life convenience and transformation as a means for livelihood was also found at some houses. Structural transformation was found with extension and addition of spatial components to the back and side of the space. In case of extension, room and kitchen were extended to the back, the most of back wall was transferred to eaves and then curved part on thick wood was installed. Additional transformation was made by adding wall to wall space. Such a transformation was caused by narrowness of life space and security of facility space and maintenance of existing structure was made by legal restrictions regulating roof styles and furniture.
Mass transformation was not found at stylobate and roof, but caused by changes in wall structure and window. Double windows was created most frequently, followed by extension of spatial factors and creation of wall structure. Such a transformation was found most at installation of aluminium gate and creation of wall structure in the front, extension and enlargement of spatial factors were most in the back and extension of spatial factors and installation of aluminium window were most in the side. Combination of wall structure and window installation was found in the front and change of mass style through extension and enlargement was mainly made in the back and the side.
Material transformation was found most at windows, followed by extension of spatial factors. Transformation by exchange and creation of windows was made by exchanging materials such as wood and window paper into those like aluminium and glass and materials used for extension were cement block and plywood instead of stone wall and wood. Such a transformation in using materials was caused by convenience of construction, management and construction cost.
Transformation of facilities was most in heating methods, followed by westernization of kitchen and creation of bathroom and laundry. It is judged that such a transformation was caused by changes of dwellers' dwelling styles such as western styled life, behavioral inconvenience by dwellers' aging and changes of heating methods and materials.
Fourth, as a result of analyzing correlations between five psychological evaluation items and preferences to seek direction of regulation according to external space evaluation as a way of conserving dwelling space of Nagan folk village, needs of regulation were high in vehicle, vending machine, house 2 and street facilities. Mean value of preferences was low and needed regulation.
As a result of analyzing correlations between psychological evaluation items and preferences, it was found that all evaluation items showed significantly positive correlations and in particular, traditionality and harmony had the highest correlations. Correlations between psychological evaluation items and preferences were high in traditionality, harmony and affinity in order. Thus preference of external space in Nagan folk village was governed most by traditionality and it was known that it was influenced most by external space. Then it was judged that maintenance of traditionality in conserving external space of Nagan folk village was most important and it considered harmony with the whole factors composing external space most.
Fifth, alternatives of transformation caused by changes in dwellers' circumstances included policy support for aged dwellers, making detailed management guidelines of traditional houses and education of dwellers. It was also judged that construction and repair materials must have restrictions based on guideline of using traditional materials by design books.
Methods to manage transformations caused by maladaptation of spatial functions at dwelling life, acceptance of modern life styles and changes of life styles included opening illegal transformation behaviors through improvement of related legal system and optional permission.
Transformations caused by aging of buildings, commercial behaviors, wrong repair and restoration, irrational residents' requirements and negligence of management due to the lack of traditional value awareness should be managed through preparing methods to inspire awareness of cultural properties into dwellers, division of cultural properties protection and commercial zones and thorough supervision and direction of repair and restoration.
It was considered that current compulsory regulations such as extension of performance subjects and preparation of standards of regulation range should be sublated and clauses related to rights or recommendations should be newly created. There are methods such as establishment of private organizations composed of professionals and residents with extension of performance subjects, creation of grade by house based on standards of regulation range and allowance of differences in repair and change by grade. Efficiency of management can be achieved by strengthening incentives such as tax reduction and subsidy payment and highlighting advantages of cultural property management as the methods of sublating current compulsory regulations and extending creation of right and recommendation clauses.
Informatization methods to manage original and transformation of dwelling space at Nagan folk village accepted process approach which extracted informatization factors of dwelling space transformation elements, established their information factors and estimated data values. Consequently, such systems that informatization for transformation and management of dwelling space was drawn and modelled, that managing original information of traditional architectures at the folk village, that managing transformation information of architectural design factors at the folk village, that managing past and present folk village dwellers and information management system of past and present maintenance of the folk village should be established as effective management systems.
This study examined transformations and damages scattered at the Nagan folk village and suggested its conservative methods. Thus it is expected that it will play a meaningful role as the positive materials for the rational conservation of the Nagan folk village by ensuring the enormous materials through several positive and concrete examinations from the time that the Nagan folk village was designated as cultural property. It is also judged that it can establish a new method of conserving traditional village by proposing future-oriented conservation concept to embody sustainable form to conventional concept of conserving folk village centering around restoration and conservation, examining conflicts and problems found at the Nagan folk village and suggesting their solutions.
It is considered that further researches must examine 'improvement of legal system for designating absolute conservation zone of folk village', detailed methods of installation standards of convenience facilities at the folk village' and 'management information system development of the folk village' to present more concrete methods of conserving the folk village which are not approached deeply by this study.
Alternative Title
A Study on the Remodeling and Conservation of Dwelling Spaces in Naganeupseong Folk Village
Alternative Author(s)
Han, Choong Han
조선대학교 대학원
일반대학원 건축공학과
Awarded Date
Table Of Contents
1. 서론
1.1 연구의 배경 및 목적 = 1
1.2 연구의 방법 및 범위 = 3
1.2.1 연구의 방법 = 3
1.2.2 연구의 범위 = 6
2. 이론적 배경 및 기존연구의 = 동향
2.1 문화변용과 건축 = 7
2.1.1 변용의 요인 = 12
2.1.2 거주자의 상황성과 주거 특성 = 14
2.2 문화재의 보존과 보전 = 20
2.2.1 보존과 보전의 개념 = 20
2.2.2 민속마을의 공간변용과 보전 = 27
2.3 선행연구의 분석과 동향 = 47
2.3.1 연구동향 분석과 연구 의의 = 47
2.3.2 보전사례분석 = 65
3. 낙안읍성민속마을의 변천과 그 = 특징
3.1 낙안읍성민속마을의 특징 = 84
3.2 낙안읍성민속마을의 공간구조와 변화 = 87
3.2.1 시대적 변화양상 = 87
3.2.2 공간구조의 변화 = 96
3.3 낙안읍성민속마을의 변화요인 = 107
3.4 소결 = 109
4. 낙안읍성민속마을의 공간변용과 실태 = 분석
4.1 외부공간의 변용실태와 분석 = 110
4.1.1 이입요소의 추출 = 112
4.1.2 이입요소 공간의 평가 = 120
4.1.3 소결 = 127
4.2 주거공간의 변용실태와 분석 = 128
4.2.1 조사대상 가옥의 특성 = 129
4.2.2 가옥별 변용 실태 = 135
4.2.3 대지 형태 변화와 채공간의 변용 = 158
4.2.4 평면 변용 = 169
4.2.5 입면 변용 = 190
4.2.6 구조 변용 = 208
4.2.7 재료 및 설비의 변용 = 212
4.3 소결 = 220
5. 공간변용 원인에 따른 보전방향 = 모색
5.1 외부공간 평가에 따른 규제의 방향 = 222
5.1.1 규제의 필요성과 선호도 분석 = 222
5.1.2 심리적 평가 항목과 선호도의 상관분석 = 224
5.2 변용원인에 따른 주공간 보전 방향 = 226
5.3 관련 규제의 개선 방향 = 229
5.3.1 법 제도의 개선 가능성 검토 = 229
5.3.2 법 제도 개선의 방향 = 234
5.4 관리정보시스템의 구조화 = 235
5.4.1 낙안읍성민속마을의 관리현황 = 235
5.4.2 낙안읍성민속마을 관리의 체계화 및 정보화 = 236
5.5 소결 = 242
6. 결론 = 244
조선대학교 대학원
한충한. (2006). 樂安邑城民俗마을의 住空間 變容과 保全에 關한 硏究.
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