유치원 유아의 칭찬 특성에 관한 질적 연구

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A Qualitative Study of the Characteristics of Compliments in Kindergarten Children
: Focusing on a Case of Bada Class in Uzoo Kindergarten

Seo, Kyung Hee
Academic Advisor : Prof. Seo, Hyun, Ed. D.
Department of Education (Early Childhood Education),
Graduate School of Chosun University

The purpose of this study was to acquire in-depth understanding of compliments among young children in kindergarten. For this purpose, the study used an ethnographic method for survey and analysis of the objects and functions of compliments initiated by young children and their teacher, the types of compliments given, and the derived meanings of the compliments to young children. Specifically, this study attempted to answer the following research questions:

1. What are the objects of compliments initiated by young children and the teacher?
2. What are the functions of compliments initiated by young children and the teacher?
3. What types of compliments are initiated by young children and the teacher?
4. What meanings do compliments have to young children?

The subjects of this study were 22 five-year-old children, 14 girls and 8 boys, and their teacher, all part of Bada Class at Uzoo Kindergarten in Gwangju Metropolitan City. The research period was from March 29, 2012 to January 11, 2013, and data were collected through 77 instances of participant observation; in-depth interviews with the children, their parents, and the teacher; formal and informal interviews; field notes; field interviews; recording; videotaping; photographing; and document collection. Collected data were coded, categorized, and analyzed using the method proposed by Bogdan and Biklen (2010).
The results of this study are summarized as follows:
First, the objects of compliments initiated by young children in kindergarten were “themselves,” “their friends,” “the teacher or other adults,” and “things.” The objects of compliments initiated by the teacher were “children,” “other children, directed to listening children,” and “adults, directed to the listening children.”
Second, the functions of compliments initiated by children were comfort, consent, naming as “a strategy for making friends,” and self-reinforcement as “an attempt at self-justification.” In addition, imitation was observed in “role play in imaginative play,” and flattery and bullying were manifested in “application of the logic of power.” Next, the functions of compliments initiated by the teacher were modeling and encouragement as “strategies for behavioral change,” and dilatation and clarification as “explanation and summary of thoughts.” Acknowledgement was observed as “a prompt for another story,” and evaluation was observed as “an ending mark for activities.” Moreover, intervention was observed as “interference to change a negative atmosphere,” and command as “two faces of compliments.” These observations show that compliments work on young children in both positive and negative ways.
Third, various types of compliments were expressed toward young children in kindergarten. These types included “direct and indirect compliments,” “verbal and non-verbal compliments,” “concrete and abstract compliments,” “true and untrue compliments,” “conditional and unconditional compliments,” and “private and public compliments.” Compliments to young children were usually given directly, but sometimes indirectly through another person. This could uplift self-esteem by making the child feel complimented by two individuals; however, in this way, the teacher also burdened children by suggesting something unpleasant through a third person. Compared to verbal compliments, physical intimacy, smiles, and hand signs, were more effective in actively moving young children. In verbal compliments, those with specific explanation were more effective than groundless and ambiguous compliments in helping children recognize desirable behaviors. On the other hand, young children could also feel burdened by compliments, because they were aware of the hidden intention of untrue compliments, and they did not perceive unconditional formal compliments as true compliments. Moreover, open complimenting affected the complimented children, and also affected other children. These findings suggest that compliments should be given consistently and in a way appropriate for the situation.
Fourth, the meanings of compliments given to young children in kindergarten were “power making the Bada Class dance,” “signs leading to reflection on and resolution of the self,” “discovery of another great self,” “catalyst for unity,” “promotion of continuous play,” “burden against my will and stopper of desire,” and “acquisition of black-and-white compliments.” Through exchange of compliments and encouragement, young children gained confidence, a sense of achievement, and satisfaction; as a result, compliments became a “power making the Bada Class dance.” In addition, because children looked to their complimented friends as behavioral role models, compliments became “signs leading reflection on and resolution of the self,” and acknowledging compliments from friends or the teacher provided an opportunity to renew children's self-esteem through “discovery of another great self.” Furthermore, in young children, with friends or the teacher, compliments functioned as a “catalyst for unity,” promoting intimate relationships and sustaining continuous play. However, negative aspects of compliments to children were also found. To children, compliments were sometimes seen as a “burden against my will and blocker of desire”: because of compliments, young children felt forced to do activities that they did not want to do, and this consequently frustrated their desire for other activities. Moreover, untrue compliments without genuine heart were seen as “acquisition of black-and-white compliments.” This resulted in children’s loss of trust in compliments.
As presented above, compliments initiated by young children and their teacher had positive and negative effects, depending on the compliments’ object, function, and type of expression. This emphasizes again the importance of complimenting appropriately and according to the specific situation. The results of this study are expected to provide useful data in the field of early childhood education for understanding the experiential meanings of compliments to young children, and to suggest desirable directions for positive interaction.
Alternative Title
A Qualitative Study of the Characteristics of Compliments in Kindergarten Children
Alternative Author(s)
Seo, Kyung Hee
일반대학원 교육학과
서 현
Awarded Date
Table Of Contents
목 차

Ⅰ. 서론 1
A. 연구의 필요성 1
B. 연구목적 및 연구문제 7
C. 연구자 8

Ⅱ. 이론적 배경 11
A. 칭찬의 개념 11
B. 칭찬의 이론적 관점 16
1. 인본주의적 관점 16
2. 행동주의적 관점 17
3. 인지주의적 관점 22
4. 구성주의적 관점 23
C. 칭찬의 방법 27
D. 칭찬의 기능과 교육적 효과 35

Ⅲ. 연구방법 45
A. 문화기술적 연구 45
B. 연구절차 47
1. 연구대상 선정 과정 47
2. 예비연구 49
3. 본 연구 49
C. 연구대상 51
1. 우주유치원 52
2. 바다반 56
3. 교사 64
4. 유아들 65
D. 자료수집 72
1. 참여관찰 72
2. 심층면담 74
3. 문서수집 78
E. 자료분석 79

Ⅳ. 유아와 교사가 주도하는 칭찬의 대상 82
A. 유아가 주도하는 칭찬의 대상 82
1. 유아가 자신에게 칭찬하기 82
2. 유아가 친구에게 칭찬하기 84
3. 유아가 교사나 다른 성인에게 칭찬하기 86
4. 유아가 사물에게 칭찬하기 88
B. 교사가 주도하는 칭찬의 대상 90
1. 교사가 유아에게 칭찬하기 90
2. 교사가 유아에게 다른 유아 칭찬하기 92
3. 교사가 다른 성인에게 유아 칭찬하기 94

Ⅴ. 유아와 교사가 주도하는 칭찬의 기능 97
A. 유아가 주도하는 칭찬의 기능 97
1. 친해지기 위한 전략 : 위로, 동의, 명명 97
2. 자기 합리화의 시도 : 자기강화 101
3. 가상놀이에서 역할 수행 : 모방 104
4. 힘의 논리 적용 : 아부, 따돌림 105
B. 교사가 주도하는 칭찬의 기능 109
1. 행동변화를 위한 전략 : 모델링, 격려 110
2. 생각의 풀이와 정리 : 부연, 명료화 115
3. 다음 이야기를 끌어내기 위한 유도제 : 인정 118
4. 활동의 마침표 : 평가 121
5. 부정적 분위기 전환을 위한 개입 : 중재 123
6. 칭찬의 두 얼굴 : 명령 126

Ⅵ. 칭찬의 유형 130
A. 직접적인 칭찬과 간접적인 칭찬 130
B. 언어적인 칭찬과 비언어적인 칭찬 133
C. 구체적인 칭찬과 비구체적인 칭찬 136
D. 진실된 칭찬과 거짓된 칭찬 140
E. 조건적인 칭찬과 무조건적인 칭찬 143
F. 개인적인 칭찬과 공개적인 칭찬 147

Ⅶ. 칭찬이 유아에게 주는 의미 151
A. 바다반을 춤추게 하는 힘 151
B. 나를 되돌아보고 다짐하게 하는 신호 154
C. 또 다른 멋진 나 발견 156
D. 서로 하나 되게 하는 윤활유 159
E. 놀이를 지속시키는 촉진제 161
F. 내 뜻이 아닌 부담감과 의욕의 멈춤 163
G. 흑백 칭찬의 습득 166

Ⅷ. 논의 및 제언 171
A. 논의 171
B. 제언 190

참 고 문 헌 192
부 록 214
서경희. (2015). 유치원 유아의 칭찬 특성에 관한 질적 연구.
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