데이터센터의 외기도입 냉방시스템 적용에 따른 에너지 저감효과 및 경제성 분석

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데이터센터, 외기도입 냉방시스템, 필터차압, PUE
With the rapid advancement in domestic IT industry, geometrical development of performance and processing capabilities of related equipments and rapid increase in the demand for data centers, the market size of the domestic data center is increasingly expanding. However, the expansion of the market size of the data center has led to the vast increase in power consumption of server equipments in the data center where is operated for 365 days, and cooling power consumption for removal of heat load of server apparatuses. For such reason, at the moment, domestic and foreign studies on the improvement in air-conditioning efficiency and cooling system are in progress to cut cooling energy spent in data centers. Air-side economizer system is effective in reducing energy consumption by introducing the outside air to the server room directly during intermediate season and winter season that outside air's temperature is low. But, in spite of the need for reflection of the changes of energy consumption which considers temperature and dust of the outside air, for the application of the air-side economizer system, there is a shortage of research on this. Accordingly, this study analysed the effect of the improvement in energy consumption and air-conditioning efficiency of the central chilled water system in the existing data center on the reduction of energy consumption, according to the changes of chiller's chilled water setting temperature, through a TRNSYS dynamic energy simulation. Moreover, case study was performed to analyse the effect of the air-side economizer system on the reduction of energy consumption depending on types of applied filters and control conditions and furthermore, its economic efficiency was examined. The major research findings are as below.

1) When analysing central chilled water system's annual power consumption, chiller, amongst system devices, showed the highest power consumption(47%), and raising chiller's chilled water setting temperature to 7 degrees was helpful in cutting energy consumption by 8% each year without additional device, due to the improvement of chiller's COP. m widely, optimal design method for it is needed. However, there should be consideration of the decrease in the number of server racks to the unit area which is caused by the improvement of air-conditioning efficiency.

2) This research performed a case study on control methods of the introduced outside air and applied filters of the air-side economizer system's without separate mixing chamber, for mixing of exhaust. As a result, it was revealed that energy consumption was cut by 49%, compared to the existing central chilled water system. But this is the most ideal case, and thus may cause malfunction of server equipments and inequal air currents in the server room coming from the introduced outside air. Though the case study for enthalpy and temperature control was able to remedy these shortcomings, the energy reduction effect declined. Plus, the energy reduction effect showed a slight fall, because of the increase of outside air pan's power, as the applied filter's grade was higher, and ASHRAE recommended filter, Medium Filter was applied to 34% of the cases. Therefore, it is thought that there would be need for the application of filters in consideration of dust in the outside air in each region.

3) LCC(Life Cycle Cost) was estimated, based on the market research and the result of dynamic energy simulation, and air-side economizer system's economic efficiency was evaluated. After the application of the air-side economizer system, the initial investment cost increased by 17%, but it was possible to reach the break-even point in nearly 2 years, regardless of filters, since power costs that occupied the biggest proportion of LCC, decreased, and it had the lowest LCC, too when the sensitivity was analysed, according to the real rate of interest. Consequently, it was more efficient economically than the existing central chilled water system.

In conclusion, further research needs to examine total energy consumption in data centers, since this study was limited to the analysis of cooling power consumption of the data center for evaluation of energy reduction effect and economic feasibility. There is also research on water-side and air-side energy economizer systems for reduction of data center's energy consumption, currently, however, it would be required in the future to develop a system to cut down on data center's energy consumption using geothermal heat and stream water, as in domestic environment, they are not used a lot during summer season that wet-bulb temperature of the outside air is high, and to cut energy consumption in cooperation with other industries like hot spring industry which needs hot water throughout the year.
Alternative Title
Application of the Air-side economizer system to data centers for achieving Energy saving and Economic performance
Alternative Author(s)
Park, Seonghyun
조선대학교 대학원
일반대학원 건축공학과
Awarded Date
Table Of Contents

1. 서 론
1.1. 연구의 배경 및 목적 1
1.2. 연구의 방법 및 절차 3
1.3. 선행연구 고찰 5

2. 데이터센터의 이론적 고찰
2.1. 데이터센터의 정의 7
2.2. 데이터센터의 국내외 산업 동향 9
2.2.1. 국내외 산업 동향 9
2.2.2. 국내외 기술 및 특허 동향 10
2.3. 에너지 관련 정부정책 현황 11

3. 데이터센터의 냉방에너지 소비량 분석
3.1. 데이터센터 도입 가능 냉방시스템 14
3.2. 대상 데이터센터 개요 16
3.2.1. 대상 데이터센터 건물 16
3.2.2. 중앙냉수 냉방시스템 구성 장비 사양 18
3.3. TRNSYS 동적에너지 시뮬레이션 개요 19
3.4. 데이터센터 서버 룸의 냉방부하 분석 20
3.4.1. 냉방부하 예측 에너지 시뮬레이션 경계 조건 20
3.4.2. 냉방부하 예측 에너지 시뮬레이션 결과 21
3.5. 데이터센터의 냉방에너지 소비량 분석 22
3.5.1. 냉방시스템의 에너지 시뮬레이션 경계 조건 22
3.5.2. 냉방시스템의 에너지 소비량 분석 28
3.6. 냉수 설정온도 개선에 따른 에너지 소비량 저감효과 30
3.6.1. 중앙냉수 냉방시스템의 에너지 소비량 개선 30
3.6.2. 냉수 설정온도 변화에 따른 CRAH 취출온도 변화 31
3.6.3. 냉수 설정온도 변화별 에너지 저감효과 분석 32

4. 외기도입 냉방시스템의 에너지 저감효과 분석
4.1. 외기도입 냉방시스템 개요 34
4.2. 외기도입용 급기팬 사양 36
4.3. 외기도입 냉방시스템 제어방식 37
4.4. 적용필터 사양 및 교체주기 예측 40
4.5. Case study를 통한 에너지 저감효과 분석 45
4.5.1. Case 설정 45
4.5.2. 제어방식별 에너지 소비량 분석 45
4.5.3. 적용필터별 에너지 소비량 분석 48
4.5.4. Case별 외기도입 냉방시스템의 에너지 저감효과 52

5. LCC 분석을 통한 외기도입 냉방시스템의 경제성 분석
5.1. LCC 분석 개요 54
5.1.1. LCC 정의 54
5.1.2. 현재가치법 (Present Worth Method) 54
5.2. LCC 경제성 평가를 위한 기본사항 55
5.2.1. LCC 경제성 평가 모델 및 비용 산정 55
5.2.2. 각 시스템별 Cash Flow Chart 59
5.2.3. 실질할인율 60
5.3. LCC 경제성 평가 결과 62
5.3.1. 시스템별 LCC 계산 및 손익분기점 62
5.3.2. 실질할인율 변동에 따른 민감도 분석 64

6. 결 론
6.1. 결 론 66
6.2. 연구의 제약 및 향후 연구방향 67

참고문헌 68
조선대학교 대학원
박성현. (2013). 데이터센터의 외기도입 냉방시스템 적용에 따른 에너지 저감효과 및 경제성 분석.
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