과학관 전시해설에 대한 경력 도슨트의 생애사 연구

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These days, Korean science education is expanding and consolidating a variety of learning based on individual students’ aptitude and ability so that it can produce talented persons with creativity and literated character. Accordingly, informal science education becomes to be emphasized and science museums are said to be the representative of informal science educational institutions. Science museums are making efforts to meet educational needs of visitors by developing a diversity of educational programs in line with the waves of this current education. In such a context, the studies of science museums are undergoing a shift from their roles of displaying exhibition materials and managing facilities to those of training educators like curators and docents to enhance visitors' learning science. Due to a recent increase in interest in science museum education including docent education, the number of studies are being reported to ensure internal stability of science museums. With the current issues in science museum education, this study was designed and investigated to explore the current status quo of docent system in science museum and the way to make docent training system professional through on the life-historical approach, one of the qualitative studies. With Ms. Yang as main informant of this study who has been working as a docent for 8 years, this research was conducted to determine her professionalism as the docent during her lifetime.
The research period ranged from December, 2009 to April, 2011. During this period, Ms. Yang was observed and interviewed before and after her interpreting exhibition regularly, and she and the researcher had irregular conversation when they had chances. The total recorded time taken was 14 hours from 11 regular interviews with Docent Yang only and another 12 hours from 25 irregular interviews with Docent Yang's acquaintance including her family, curators, her docent manager, experts on science education, and other docents as peers as well as two parents who visited science museums. Docent Yang was also observed four of session lasting 2 hours for her exhibit interpretation. Document artifacts including the educational materials that Docent Yang produced during her docentship, her speech materials submitted to a docent speech contest, e-mails exchanged between the docent and the researcher, materials and writing posted on internet blogs and cafes run by docents, educational materials used for docent training and supplementary programs and her chronology as well as field notes, were also collected and consulted. The data collected were categorized and analyzed according to research question of what the current docent system looks alike and how it can be promoted for the most internal stabilization of science museums. To construct the validity and reliability of data interpretation on the basis of collected and analyzed data, procedures as theoretical sample extraction, triangulation of data collection and analysis, validation by the participant, and consultation with experts as well as co-researchers, were followed. The results were described according to the stages of the life cycle where docent Yang experienced events influencing her to become a docent. The results are as follows.
First, docents as volunteer who are responsible for science museum education by interpreting exhibition, must be differentiated themselves from ordinary volunteers, in terms of educational beliefs, which exerts the greatest influence on docents' activities in that the beliefs can appropriately be formed through life-historical experiences, even though it can partially be acquired through the training curriculum. Once people apply for docentship, they are required to take training program consisting of basic literary education, professional content knowledge education(knowledge about exhibit content, knowledge about visitors, and knowledge about interpreting strategies), and practical field experience. Yet, there is some to be improved: there are some institutions which do not conduct basic literary education but content knowledge about exhibition; the education of expertise is limited to exhibit contents studies; the various experiences of senior docents are restricted to interact with new docents because those who are responsible for the education of field practice are mainly curators.
Second, docents become to acquire and organize their practical knowledge of exhibit interpretation through their real activities. Docent's practical knowledge is formed in the context similar to that of teachers, but the former is different from the latter in terms of knowledge of interpreting strategies and knowledge of the context environment for exhibit interpretation. Docents' knowledge of interpreting strategies is corresponding to that of teachers' teaching in the classroom. However, there is a difference between the two: the latter is directed toward the homogeneous learners at similar levels or grades in the classroom, while the former is aimed at the heterogeneous learners, varying in their age and culture with various visiting purpose in science museum. On the other hand, knowledge about the exhibition interpretation environment is to be contrasted to that of the teaching environment. The teaching environment is made up of classrooms, or closed space, whereas the exhibition interpretation environment consists of open space where some visitors listening to exhibition interpretation co-exist with others watching the exhibition individually. Accordingly, docents' knowledge under these circumstances, distinguished from that of teachers, is thought to be so practical as to deal with a variety of unexpected accidents and as to contribute to the convenience of visitors. Docents' practical knowledge can be formed or altered to be further systematized while docents interact with visitors, which may be referred to as a strategy for exhibition interpretation. Docent Yang's exhibition-interpreting strategies were divided into three stages. First stage was pre-interpretation one where docent Yang got materials ready for what and how to interact with visitors in advance by taking into account various aspects associated with exhibition interpretation. Second stage was the exhibition interpretation one where docent Yang displayed a variety of interpreting strategies while she interacted with visitors with the consideration of visitors' psychological aspects, such as how to motivate them to be engaged in her interpretation. Third stage was post-interpretation one where docent Yang wrapped up the exhibition interpretation what was assigned to her and added what she missed that day due to the time limitation. Additionally docent Yang reminded visitors of visiting that museum again with courtesy. Docent Yang had a chance to reflect on what she did with visitors and wrote a reflective journal of her activities in order to make a better exhibit interpretation next time.
Third, docents must be regarded as experts with professional knowledge different from those of ordinary volunteers. Hence, docent Yang tried to develop herself as a professional docent in two areas; one is internal area where she acquired content knowledge of what to know about the exhibition, pedagogy knowledge of how to interpret exhibition, and context knowledge of how to deal with unexpected accidents. The other one is external where she promoted her practical knowledge related to exhibit interpretation by interacting with docent peers and science educators regularly as a vehicle for achieving professionalism more effectively. Docent Yang added that it is important to establish a close rapport between novice and experienced docents in that they can learn each other to promote themselves professional. Realizing the substantial educational effect of the mentorship of experienced docents with ample experiences on novice docents, docent Yang did her best to share her expertise with the novices by providing them with useful materials and interacting them through the Internet. The conclusions could be made as follows on the basis of results mentioned in the above.
First, it is about structured docent system. It is necessary to set a concrete regulations for recruiting docents in science museums. The recruitment of docents should be limited to those who majored in science-related studies, those who have ever had work experiences at science-related institutions and those who have ever taught professional knowledge on science, allowing for applicants’ motivations and enthusiasm for educational activities. After recruiting appropriate docents in any museum, they need to offer the systematic docent training program where pre-docents experience the integration of theoretical informal learning and practical informal learning as well as general literacy with visitors. Additionally, docent evaluation system must be constructed to run professional docent program with the collaboration between curators and experienced docents.
Second, it is about how to run docent system effectively. Specific and concrete docent running program should be planned, made, and recorded in regard to docents’ effective activities. Docents need to keep a journal where they indicate what many activities they run, how long each activity lasts, how many visitors docents interact with, and what to modify to implement it better next time. Docents as educators should keep equipping themselves with the high quality of education by forming practical knowledge for exhibition interpretation through their activities and strengthening it while interacting with docent peers or experts such as curators and science educators. Systematic management to run docents effectively should be established through supplemental professional development program offered during regular workshop by curators and docent managers or experts in science or science education. Furthermore, regular evaluation can be given to them in order that they can get motivated to keep learning on their own in an effort to enhance their qualities.
Third, supporting system for docents’ current activities should be established in terms of environmental conditions. Docents should be provided with their own rooms full of professional books as well as material, uniforms, microphones, laser pointers, and transporting carts. Docents should be supported in food expenses, free parking permits and frequent prize or rewards, all of which motivate docents to engaged themselves in having affection in their working as docents. In terms of psychological support, docents managers, co-workers and families should fully understand and support them so that they can feel proud of their own activities. Besides environmental and psychological supports, if economical supports, such as in full degree of covered transportation fee and meals, must be established for docents to run their current working activities effectively.
Last, to run effective and professional docent system, docent preparation program can be established in one of curriculums at college of education and docent professional program can be established in one of curriculums at school of continuing education of universities. The prepared docents can be substituted as educators in science museum, while the prepared teachers are assigned as educators in schools for science learning. As long as the prepared docents start to work as educators interacting with visitors at science museum, they can also be trained to be professionals by taking additional courses at school of continuing education curriculum. The conclusions of this study may hopefully be used as a basic research for such an activation for docent education at science museum.
Alternative Title
A Life History Study on the Science Museum Exhibition Interpretation by Experienced Docent
Alternative Author(s)
Lee Jung Hwa
일반대학원 지구과학학과
일반대학원 지구과학과
Awarded Date
Table Of Contents

I. 서론 1
A. 연구의 필요성 1
B. 연구의 목적 및 연구문제 6
C. 용어 정리 8

II. 이론적 배경 10
A. 새로운 과학교육의 필요성 및 21세기 과학교육의 변화 10
B. 비형식 교육기관으로서의 과학관 14
1. 과학관의 정의, 분류 및 기능 15
2. 과학관의 실태 및 인식 18
3. 과학관의 구성 - 교육 및 교육담당자를 중심으로 21
C. 과학관 도슨트 36
1. 도슨트의 개념 및 역할 36
2. 국내 과학관의 도슨트 현황 42
3. 학습자로서의 도슨트 44
4. 교수자로서의 도슨트 - 실천적 지식의 형성 46

III. 연구 방법 55
A. 연구 방법론 - 생애사적 연구 55
B. 연구 과정 60
1. 들어가기 62
2. 연구 참여자 선정 63
3. 자료 수집 및 분석 68
4. 연구에 대한 타당성 및 신뢰성 80
C. 연구자에 대하여 83

IV. 결과 86
A. 항해를 위한 돛을 달다 - 신념의 형성 및 도슨트 입문 86
1. 자원봉사 및 교육에 대한 신념 형성에 영향을 미친 생애사적 사건 86
2. 과학관 도슨트 입문에 영향을 미친 생애사적 사건 93
3. 도슨트 양성과정과 운영관리 현황 102
4. 초창기 인식된 도슨트 정의 및 역할 - 체계적이지 않은 인식 120
B. 거친 바다로 - 도슨트 활동과 진정한 도슨트로의 성장 125
1. 좌절 - 도슨트 활동의 시련 126
2. 성공 - 도슨트 활동의 즐거움 133
3. 도슨트 활동을 통한 지식형성 - 도슨트의 실천적 지식 141
4. 현재 인식되는 도슨트 정의 및 역할 - 인식의 변화 202
C. 키를 잡다 - 전문가로서의 도슨트 208
1. 도슨트 전문성의 정의 및 필요성 208
2. 도슨트 전문성의 내용 215
3. 도슨트 전문성을 위한 선배 도슨트로서의 역할 247
4. 전문가로서의 도슨트 정의 및 역할 - 인식의 정착 254

V. 결론 및 제언 260

참고문헌 280

부 록 294
조선대학교 대학원
이정화. (2012). 과학관 전시해설에 대한 경력 도슨트의 생애사 연구.
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