하늘유치원 만 4세 유아들의 나눔에 관한 질적 연구

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A Qualitative Study on the Sharing of 4-year-old Children at Haneul Kindergarten
: Focusing on its patterns, developmental stage and meaning

Song, Sun Hwa
Advisor : Prof. Seo, Hyun, Ed. D.
Department of Education,
Graduate school of Chosun University

This study aimed to understand the phenomena of sharing observed in young children based on previous studies reporting that sharing experiences in childhood may have a positive effect on donations and volunteer activities in adulthood or promote prosocial behaviors. That is, it aimed to examine the patterns and hierarchical characteristics of sharing that young children experience in kindergarten and what their experiences in sharing mean to them. For these purposes, we set research questions as follows.

1. What patterns of sharing are observed in 4-year-old children at the Rainbow Class of Haneul Kindergarten?
2. What are the hierarchical characteristics of sharing among 4-year- old children at the Rainbow Class of Haneul Kindergarten according to their developmental stage?
3. What meanings does sharing among 4-year-old children at the Rainbow Class of Haneul Kindergarten have?

This study assumed that sharing phenomena observed among young children in the social environment of kindergarten would be manifested as their unique experiences distinguished from those among adults. In addition, we tried in?]depth analysis of the meanings of these unique experiences. As ethnographic research, which attaches importance to contextual characteristics, was believed to suitable for this purpose, we observed situations as they were in natural settings.
The participants of this study were 20 four year old children and one class teacher at the Rainbow Class of Haneul Kindergarten in Gwangju Metropolitan City. The research period was from September 1, 2010 to February 18, 2011, and data were collected through 48 sessions of participant observation, 8 in depth interviews, videotaping, recording, photographing, document collection, etc. The contents of participant observations and interviews were obtained from notes recorded on the spot, and collected data were categorized for analysis.

The results of this study were as follows.
First, various patterns of sharing were observed in the kindergarten life of the young children at the Rainbow Class in connection to things, spaces, opportunities, abilities, information, thoughts, emotion, friendship, etc. The children tried sharing of a very rudimentary form that gave priority to their own interests rather than considering others' position and, as a result, they often showed a confronting pattern. They also showed sharing as a channel that opened a relation for communication. In the course, young children, though having a self centered tendency, had somewhat unselfish sharing in relations with others based on intimacy or authority, and various forms of sharing were observed from sharing by reciprocity to sharing by sympathy.
Young children showed sharing of materials or resources and, at the same time, sharing in the psychological aspect. Sharing happened smoothly when they used something personally or together with others or when there was an agreement on a certain standard among peers. If they could not control the desire to own, however, they did not accept the position of other children who needed sharing and, as a result, sharing was interrupted.
On the other hand, the children shared abilities, information, thoughts, emotion and friendship. The young children at the Rainbow Class requested the sharing of abilities of the teacher or peers when they were not able to solve a problem by themselves, or shared their abilities when they were asked. That is, the children were observed to attempt the sharing of abilities for any task that they could not handle by themselves, and to share naturally information, thoughts or emotion that they knew or felt. It is believed that these patterns of sharing can be supported and encouraged by the teacher. If the teacher is sensitive to young children, he/she should be able to provide appropriate sharing to young children in need of help so that the children may feel that they are respected. Particularly because the sharing of emotion enables children to sympathize with others' position, it may provide a base for the practice of sharing.

Second, we analyzed the hierarchy of sharing among young children at the Rainbow Class according to their developmental characteristics. These characteristics were divided into several categories, which were 'confronting sharing', 'selective sharing', 'sharing according to rules', 'transactional sharing', 'sharing of invitation and acceptance' and 'sharing of adjustment and understanding.'
In 'confronting sharing', young children revealed their self centered characteristic most frequently. Specifically, it was expressed by 'asserting ownership', 'claiming priority' and 'exercising power'. This situation of sharing is considered a very rudimentary stage at which children give priority to their own interests rather than considering others' position. 'Selective sharing' also revealed young children's self centeredness among various characteristics of sharing. That is, they did sharing with their favorite partners, on conditions advantageous to themselves, and in a way that they chose. Moreover, 'sharing according to rules' sometimes appeared as the concept of fair division by an absolute standard. With regard to absolute rules to be observed, the children experienced that many things distributed in the kindergarten must be divided fairly among all of them, and sometimes sharing was forced unilaterally. These rules determined the base for young children's voluntary and active sharing in terms of contents and methods.
On the other hand, 'transactional sharing' is a stage at which appropriate coordination is necessary in the sharing situation, and the coordination and self control process is believed to provide young children with experiences that improve their social skills for peer relations. Moreover, 'sharing of invitation and acceptance' is the experience of sharing that spreads to all. At this stage, sharing that young children accepted resulted in another invitation, and after all, the whole class communicated. In addition, 'sharing of adjustment and understanding' was manifested as cooperation for the whole of the Rainbow Class. At this stage, the children shared for the general good of the Rainbow Class, and this is believed to promote the socialization of sharing in that adjustment and understanding of the self and others are essential.

Third, we derived the meanings of sharing observed in the young children at the Rainbow Class. The sharing of the children at the Rainbow Class had meanings of 'division', 'exposition' and 'filling'. That is, to the young children at the Rainbow Class, sharing was division of limited resources. They wanted to be recognized first, and showed sharing by filling when they needed one another so that the whole class could get along well.
These general meanings may be divided into more specific meanings such as 'anxiety about being taken away', 'one for you one for me', 'delimiting with my yardstick', 'satisfying from myself', 'being acknowledged', being together than alone', 'giving and receiving sharing, 'sharing ownership', 'confirming relationship' and 'doing the best for all'. To the young children, sharing was the strong expression of their ownership over an object and meant their anxiety about being taken away by peers. Moreover, they often shared and took it back according to their own standard, or explained the situation that they could not share using seemingly valid reasons. Moreover, they showed sharing as an expression of satisfaction or in order to reveal their presence by displaying abilities. This is a trial to get recognized and confirm relationship by sharing as a showoff or as a means of expressing a voluntary and friendly mind, suggesting that sharing can be a foundation for the formation of a positive social self. What is more, they did sharing to express their efforts for all by filling one another?fs shortages. This may be understood that young children evaluate their competence positively and develop their consideration of others.
The results of this study presented above suggest the necessity of active efforts by early childhood education institutions for settling and activating sharing effectively. Moreover, they may be useful as empirical basic materials when executing sharing education for young children.
Alternative Title
A Qualitative Study on the Shaing of 4-year-old Children at Haneul Kindergarten : Focusing on its patterns, developmental stage and meaning
Alternative Author(s)
Song, Sun Hwa
조선대학교 일반대학원
일반대학원 교육학과
Awarded Date
Table Of Contents
목 차


Ⅰ. 서론 1
A. 연구의 필요성과 목적 1
B. 연구문제 6
C. 연구자 7
1. 가르치는 자의 갈증 7
2. 연구의 계기 8

Ⅱ. 이론적 배경 10
A. 나눔 개념의 분석 10
B. 나눔의 이론적 관점 16
1. 친사회성 관점에서의 나눔 16
2. 공정성 관점에서의 나눔 23
3. 도덕성 발달 관점에서의 나눔 27
4. 나눔에 영향을 주는 기타 이론적 관점 34

Ⅲ. 연구방법 39
A. 문화기술적 연구(Ethnographic Inquiry) 39
B. 연구절차 41
1. 연구대상 41
2. 예비연구 55
3. 본 연구 55
C. 자료수집 56
D. 자료분석 61
E. 타당도 63

Ⅳ. 만 4세 무지개반 유아들의 나눔의 양상 65
A. 물건 65
B. 공간 67
C. 기회 68
D. 능력 69
E. 정보 73
F. 생각 75
G. 정서 77
H. 우정 81

Ⅴ. 만 4세 무지개반 유아들의 나눔의 발달단계 특성에 따른 위계적 분석 83
A. 맞서는 나눔 83
B. 선택적 나눔 89
C. 규칙에 따른 나눔 93
D. 거래적 나눔 97
E. 권유와 수용의 나눔 100
F. 조절과 이해의 나눔 103

Ⅵ. 만 4세 무지개반 유아들의 나눔의 의미 108
A. 내 몫으로 정하기 : 분할 108
1. 빼앗김에 대한 불안 108
2. 너 하나 나 하나 110
B. 주도권 잡기 : 드러냄 113
1. 나의 잣대로 한계 짓기 113
2. 나부터 만족하기 116
3. 인정 받기 118
C. 부족함 채우기 : 채움 124
1. 혼자보다 함께하기 124
2. 나눔 주기, 나눔 받기 127
3. 소유를 공유하기 132
4. 관계맺음의 확인 136
5. 전체를 위한 최선 139
Ⅶ. 논의 및 결론 148
A. 요약 및 논의 148
B. 결론 및 제언 156

참 고 문 헌 158
송선화. (2011). 하늘유치원 만 4세 유아들의 나눔에 관한 질적 연구.
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General Graduate School > 4. Theses(Ph.D)
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