자원봉사자의 참여동기가 직무만족도에 미치는 영향

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This study is to describe the motives for participating in volunteer services in terms of public service motivation(PSM) and to analyze the effects of the participation's motives on satisfaction. That is, what effects the motives for participation have on the satisfaction levels of individuals and what relations the diversity of motivations for participation has on the content and characteristics of the voluntary service were explained with the use of the theory of public service motivation.
Studies on public service motivations reported that public service personnel considered public service and occupational stability more important than external or economic reward, and gave a priority to internal rewards such as interest in the work, providing services for society, and personal achievement. In particular, it was discovered that public service personnel gave greater meaning to social service as they had public service ethics and responded more sensitively to public service motivation.
Therefore, this study explained what effect the participation motives in voluntary service had on occupational satisfaction by grafting the theory of public service motivation into voluntary public service. In respect to the public service motivation theory, it has been believed that three-dimensional motivational structures for reasonable motives, normative motives, and emotional motives have an effect on public service activities. However, this study speculates on the participation motives for volunteer services including selfish motives for which self-interest is reasonably pursued based on good human nature.
People with reasonable motives recognize the realization of social values through the participation in the political process as personal utility and intend to perform services which are socially meaningful. Reasonable motives were measured with the use of attractiveness to public policy(APM). People involved identify a public policy with their own policy, which meacates the success of a specific policy is the same as their own success or self-realization. People with normative motives intend to follow norms and perform their duties steadily as community members, which enhances the public m me. The normative motives are measured with the use of commitmblicto public interest(CPI) and athe success oin terms of people having the rolepubliandator wholiake an effe rcto enhance public welfathebased on fcethfulness to their nation. Emotional motives athebased on the sensecto protect the underlicvileged and biveevoth tho others including the ipubliion toveo good deeds. They are measured based on self-sacrifice(SS) and athecveo cth twith the sensecof affection for the public and patriotism, and a rolepubla puributi measuthe protection of . Emoeak.m elfish motives preselepubhecvsic polbenefit of voluntary services in terms of egoism. They are measured based on egoistic motives(EGO) and achievement motives, and are explained as a human instinct to intend to participate in voluntary service for more valuable and special rewards.
Job ambiguity means that role expectation is not definitive and the result of role performance can not be predicted. It occurs when people have no confidence in others' expectations of themselves. It seems that this is caused by differences between the quantity of personal information and the quantity of information required to properly perform their role. This study defined job ambiguity as indefiniteness in the methods and the authority of occupational roles and considered it a very important factor in that when exact information is absent from tasks, the authority and responsibility that an individual perceives are indefinite in respect to the expectation of volunteers, studies on this ambiguity can help allocate tasks more appropriately according to personal traits and capability. To measure job ambiguity, this study used the Job Ambiguity scale(JA) which was developed by Breaugh and Colihan(1994). This scale is composed of four sub-scales: job target ambiguity, job performance method ambiguity, plan ambiguity, and result ambiguity.
This study revised the Job Descriptive Index(JDI) which was developed by Smith, Kendel & Hulin to measure satisfaction in volunteer service activities for the purpose of the study and used job ambiguity as a parameter to identify whether it has an influence on the relationship between independent and subordinate variables.
As volunteers do not observe what is given to themselves and measure job ambiguity objectively based on what they see but they identify job ambiguity only based on subjective judgments or definiteness, it is significantly meaningful to identify ambiguity through research. Perry(1996) performed research on all the variables of personal and organizational characteristics. Demo-statistical characteristics were used as moderating variables to identify whether they have a significant influence in our country.
The subjects of the study were volunteers who provided services in Gwangju and Jeollanamdo and were interviewed with a questionnaire. A total of 1,012 copies of the questionnaire were distributed and 786 were returned. Of this total 765 copies were used in the final analysis as 21 could not be used as subjects for the analysis (a valid recovery rate of 75.6%). For the statistical analysis, SPSS 18.0 and AMOS 18.0 were used.
The results of the study are summarized as follows:
First, for the relationship between participation motives and job satisfaction, reasonable motives, normative motives, and selfish motives have a significant relationship to job satisfaction, but the relationship between emotional motive and job satisfaction was insignificant. In the analysis of the moderating effect of participation motives and job satisfaction, reasonable motives, demo-statistical characteristics(gender, marriage, education, age, monthly income, service period and operating institutes) had a moderating effect on selfish motives and job satisfaction.
Second, in the relationship between participation motives and job ambiguity, normative motives, emotional motives, and selfish motives had a significant relationship to job ambiguity, but the relationship between reasonable motives and job ambiguity were insignificant. In the analysis of moderating effects of participation motives and job ambiguity, demo-statistical characteristics(gender, marriage, education, age, monthly income, service period and operating institutes) had a moderating effect on normative motives, emotional motives, and selfish motives.
Third, the relationship between job ambiguity as a parameter and job satisfaction as a subordinate variable were significant. In a mediating effect test, the mediating effect of job ambiguity had a the most significant effect on the relationship between normative motives and job satisfaction. It indicates that job satisfaction of volunteers, who were less influenced by job ambiguity, was higher than in the case when normative motives had a direct effect on job satisfaction.
The implications of the results are summarized as follows:
First, public service motivation of volunteers had a positive effect on job satisfaction. In particular, as variables to maximize job satisfaction, reasonable motives, normative variables, and selfish motives had positive roles.
Second, the public service motivation of volunteers had a negative effect on job ambiguity. This indicates that participation motivation for voluntary service did not focus on profit and a definite description of the jobs allocated to volunteers will lead to higher participation motivation and job satisfaction in terms where they work to help for the public good.
Third, the fact that the relationship between job ambiguity and job satisfaction were negative means that volunteers judge job ambiguity based on subjective ambiguity rather than objective ambiguity and differentiate their job according to ambiguity and definiteness of the actual job. As a result, it can be suggested that a definite description of a job can lead to satisfaction in volunteers.
Fourth, in an analysis of the demo-statistical moderating effect, results similar to the hypotheses of the study were obtained. Moderating variables had a moderating effect on the relationship between public service motives, job ambiguity, and job satisfaction, but they could not lead to a change in the participation motivation. Finally, it can be suggested that it is more important to reinforce the public service motivation.
As participation motivation in voluntary service tends to vary, volunteers could not be satisfied with volunteer service if they are managed only with fragmentary participation motivation. Therefore, it is important to design a job using public service motives so that volunteers can have confidence in being engaged in voluntary service with specific means to pursue and realize a benefit for the public.
Alternative Title
The Effects of Voluntary Participation Motives on Job Satisfaction
Alternative Author(s)
Kim, Hyeon Jin
조선대학교 OO대학원
일반대학원 사회복지학과
Awarded Date
Table Of Contents
제 1 장 서 론 1

제1절 연구목적 1

제2절 연구범위 및 방법 6
1. 연구범위 6
2. 연구방법 8

제 2 장 이론적 배경 10

제1절 자원봉사 동기의 이론적 검토 10
1. 자원봉사동기의 이해 10
1) 자원봉사동기 개념 10
2) 자원봉사동기 이론 11
2. 기존 연구 경향 15
1) 동기분류 연구 15
2) 유인과 동기 연구 17
3) 동기와 만족도 연구 20
4) 공사부문간 동기 연구 22
5) 공공서비스동기 연구 25
6) 기존연구의 한계 30

제2절 공공서비스동기이론 32
1. 개념 및 유형 32
2. 공공서비스동기 구성 35
3. 본 연구의 자원봉사동기 39
1) 합리적 동기 39
2) 규범적 동기 42
3) 정서적 동기 44
4) 이기적 동기 45

제3절 직무모호성 49
1. 직무모호성의 의의 49
2. 직무모호성 영향요인 52

제4절 직무만족 56
1. 직무만족의 의의 56
2. 직무만족의 영향요인 59

제5절 변수간의 관계 63
1. 공공서비스동기와 직무만족 63
2. 공공서비스동기와 직무모호성 66
3. 직무모호성과 직무만족 68

제 3 장 연구설계 70

제1절 연구모형 및 연구가설 70
1. 연구모형 70
2. 연구가설 72
1) 참여 동기와 직무만족 72
2) 참여 동기와 직무모호성 76
3) 직무모호성과 직무만족 80

제2절 변수의 조작적 정의 84
1. 참여 동기 85
1) 합리적 동기 85
2) 규범적 동기 86
3) 정서적 동기 86
4) 이기적 동기 87
2. 직무모호성 87
3. 직무만족 88
4. 설문의 구성 89

제3절 자료수집과 분석 92
1. 자료수집 92
2. 자료분석 92
3. 표본의 특성 93

제 4 장 실증분석 97

제1절 측정도구검증 97
1. 타당도 분석 97
1) 요인분석 97
2) 확인적 요인분석 99
2. 신뢰도 분석 102

제2절 특성별 차이분석 103
1. 기술통계 103
2. 상관관계 107

제3절 연구모형 및 가설검증 110
1. 연구모형검증 110
2. 가설검증 113
3. 매개효과검증 120
4. 조절효과검증 122
1) 참여동기와 직무만족 122
2) 참여동기와 직무모호성 131
3) 직무모호성과 직무만족 139

제4절 분석결과의 논의 142
1. 기술통계 분석 결과 142
2. 가설검증 결과 143
3. 조절효과 분석 결과 145

제 5 장 결론 148

제1절 연구의 요약 148
제2절 연구의 의의 및 시사점 152
1. 연구의 의의 152
2. 연구의 시사점 153
김현진. (2011). 자원봉사자의 참여동기가 직무만족도에 미치는 영향.
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