중국 경제ㆍ무역 정책의 변화에 대한 연구

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Chinese Communist Party, after 8-year War of Resistance Against Japanand 3-year civil war with the Guomintang under the leadership of Mao Zedong, finally established the People's Republic of China on October 1, 1949. After new China was founded, as the West's economic blockade of China, China can only obtained economic and technical assistance from the former Soviet Union. But at the end of the 1950s, because of the deterioration of Sino-Soviet relations, the Chinese government carried out the policy of self-reliance by Mao Zedong. From the beginning of 1953,The Chinese government constituted an economic plan every 5 years. In order to achieve the goals of each five-year economic plan, the central government contitued to improve trade policy and management system according to the international environment at different stages. 70s, with China at the United Nations, as well as the restoration of the status of the United States and other Western countries and the gradual establishment of diplomatic relations, the international trade environment has improved. In 1970s, with the restoration of China’s status at the United Nations as well as the gradual establishment of deiplomatic relations with the United States and other western countries, the international trade environment has improved,in 1978, under the advocation of Deng Xiaoping,Chinese Governament began to reform and carried out the policy of opening up to the world. First of all, the rural people's commune was abandoned and the production of contract responsibility system was implemented, and then the city's financial and business management reform was proceeded. First of all, to attract investments,the special economic zones were established and the economic development zones were set up in 14 coastal cities. In the 1990s, further reform and a comprehensive policy of opening up to the world were implemented, such as the Pudong New Area of the Yangtze River Delta and the construction of the international city of Zhangjiagang, as well as the promotion of land-locked border trade, etc. However, at that time, the trade policy and management system seriously impeded the opening up to the outside world. Therefore, the Chinese government, first of all, decentralized the right of foreign trade management, and followed by trade operating profit and loss accountability. Government converted the Foreign Trade organizations, in particular, in 1994 the 8th National People's Congress passed the“Foreign Trade Law of the People's Republic of China”(formally come into effect on July 1, 1994).“Foreign Trade Law”, further strengthened transparency and uniformity of China's trade management system. In order to join the World Trade Organization (WTO), China negotiated with the European Union,the United States and Japan, finally in November 2001 formally joined the World Trade Organization. After joining the WTO, China's economic and trade must be consistent with international practice, China's economy dependend on international markets more and more, therefore, the Chinese government, in 2004, promulgated a new“Foreign Trade Law”.
Some drastic changes about the right of foreign trade management and import and export management system have been made. After joining the WTO, the Chinese Government actively participated in the multinational FTA consultations. China now has signed a FTA with 29 countries in Asia,South America, Australia, Africa and Europe. In order to open up export markets and important energy market, to keep China's economy maintaining rapid growth, the Chinese government would take a more active participation in FTA negotiations.
The use of foreign investment has been an important part of trade policy in China. In the early period of nation-building, China mainly accepted the former Soviet Union's economic and technical assistance and international loans. After the reform and opening-up, with the establishment of special economic zones and opening-up of coastal areas, with the implementation of preferential policies for foreign investment and the investment ways of foreign-funded enterprises, and with the continuing expansion of foreign investment, and with the increasing international competitiveness of domestic enterprises products in international markets, China has improved the Exports increase. And to coordinate the development of foreign economic relations, China's exchange rate system has reformed twice. Since 1981,the Chinese government has been using both fixed exchange rate system, however, due to the rapid increase in foreign trade and the continuing increase of foreign exchange transactions, the Chinese government, since January 1, 1994, has been implementing the new single system of the management of exchange rate. After joining WTO, China's trade surplus to the United States and other countries of the European Union's surges, the amount of foreign exchange reserves also increased rapidly. Thus trade friction arose. To solve this problem,since 2005, the Chinese government took a gradual appreciation of RMB policy, at the same time, the RMB exchange rate no longer simply pegged to the U.S. dollar, but in accordance with China's foreign trade development, chose a number of major currencies, given the appropriate weight to form a basket of currencies. I believe in the future, the Chinese Government's reform in the exchange rate will be more in line with international economic changes, so as to better promote the development of China's trade.
Alternative Title
A study on the change of Economic and trade Policy in China
Alternative Author(s)
Sun, Zhi Jun
일반대학원 무역학
일반대학원 무역학과
Awarded Date
Table Of Contents
제1장 서론 = 1
제1절 연구 배경 및 목적 = 1
제2절 연구 구성 = 2
제2장 개혁개방 이전 시기의 경제ㆍ무역 정책 = 4
제1절 대내 경제 발전 계획 = 4
제2절 대외 무역 발전 상황 = 5
제3절 외자 도입 정책 = 9
제4절 개혁?개방 이전 시기의 환율제도 = 12
제3장 개혁ㆍ개방 이후의 경제ㆍ무역 정책 = 14
제1절 대내 경제 발전 계획 = 14
제2절 대외 무역 발전 상황 = 26
제3절 무역관리체제의 변화 = 28
제4절 외자도입 및 유치정책 = 39
제5절 개혁개방 이후의 환율제도 변화 = 47
제4장 세계무역기구(WTO)가입 이후의 경제ㆍ무역 정책 = 50
제1절 중국의 세계무역기구(WTO) 가입 = 50
제2절 WTO 가입 이후 대내 경제 발전 계획 = 56
제3절 대외무역 발전 상황 = 61
제4절 WTO 가입 이후 중국의 무역정책 = 63
제5절 WTO 가입 이후 외자도입 = 72
제6절 WTO 가입후 환율제도 변화 = 76
제7절 FTA 추진 상황 = 78
제5장 결론 = 82
참고문헌 = 85
조선대학교 대학원
손지군. (2008). 중국 경제ㆍ무역 정책의 변화에 대한 연구.
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General Graduate School > 3. Theses(Master)
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