소방공무원의 직무스트레스와 우울 및 피로와의 관련성
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- This study aims to identify job stress of firemen and the relations between their job stress, depression and fatigue, targeting firemen who are working for local fire stations and 119 Centers nationwide. The period of the study was from October 1-31, 2008.
We interviewed the subjects using a short-answer type questionnaire or a online questionnaire which was composed of four sections: general factors of the subjects, Karasek's Job Content questionnaire(JCQ 2.0), Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale(CES-D), and Multidimensional Fatigue Scale(MFS).
The data collected were analysed with a use of SPSS WIN 15.0 for confidence analysis, frequency analysis, ANOVA, correlation analysis, step-by-step multi-regression analysis, and covariance structure analysis(CSA) and significance level of all the statistics is 0.05 and when significance probability is below significance level, it is considered as statistically significant.
The main results of the study are presented as follows:
1. Relation factors of Job Stress
Demo-sociological variables that are related with sub-variables of job stress were age, marriage, financial status, and a job choice motive.
The job variables relating to sub-variables of job stress included tasks in charge, position of class, career, working types and job satisfaction.
The health variables relating to sub-variables of job stress include eating habits, regular exercise, subjective health recognition and mean sleeping hours.
2. Relation factors of Depression
41.7% of the firemen had normal level of depression, 23.0% had mild or mid -level ( 15～21) of depression and 34.4% had severe level of depression.
As a result of examining the relations between demo-sociological conditions, task, health conditions, and depression, a significant difference in depression were observed according to financial status(chi square=25.05, p<.001), tasks in charge(chi square=20.70, p<.05), working types(chi square=9.66, p<.05), subjective job satisfaction(chi square=53.89, p<.001), regular exercise(chi square=23.99, p<.001), eating habits(chi square=47.45, p<.001), and subjective health conditions(chi square=61.15, p<.001).
Finally, it was demonstrated that dangerous working conditions, tasks with more physical burden, pressure, excessive responsibility and high demand of job were the factors that increase the level of depression.
As a result of a step-by-step regression analysis, we found that the variable that can explain depression the best is negative emotion scale(NE) that speaks for emotional conditions of anxiety and worry for two weeks and explains about 32.2% of depression.
However, as questions on the variable of negative emotion included questions involved in depression, they were excluded for the analysis, and we found that job stability explains depression the best. It was demonstrated that how stable present tasks are explains depression the best. When the structure of job stress variables that explains depression was examined, we found that task and emotional stress had the biggest effect on depression while job discretional power did not have any direct effect on depression. The model that tasks and emotional stress had a direct effect on depression is the most persuasive rather than the level of job demand or tasks and emotional stress had a direct effect on depression with uses of discretional power or social support as media.
3. Relation factors of Fatigue
For fatigue of firemen, 284(30.9%) had low level of fatigue and 627(68.3%) had high level of fatigue.
As a result of examining the relations between demo-sociological conditions, task, health conditions, and depression, a significant difference in depression were observed according to age(F=4.52, p<.01), financial status(F=5.12, p<.01), positions of class( F=4.75, p<.01), subjective job satisfaction(F=21.76, p<.001), work intensity(F=27.78, p<.001), regular exercise(F=6.96, p<.001), eating habits(F=9.69, p<.001), and subjective health conditions(F=1
We carried a step-by-step regression analysis on effect of job stress, socio-demographical factors, job factors and health factors on the fatigue level and the variables that could describe the fatigue level the best was negative emotion scale[NE] and its descriptive ability was 24.2% of entire fatigue, 20.2% of general fatigue, 21.0% of daily dysfunctioning, and 13.8% of situational fatigue.
As a result of examining the job stress variables that influences general fatigue, it was found that task and emotional stress had the biggest influence on fatigue while job discretional power and social support did not have any direct influence on depression.
The indirect influence of job demand, job and emotional stress through discretional power and social support was lower than direct influence, which were appropriate to describe fatigue directly.
To sum up the results above, socio-demographical variables of firemen, health-related and job-related variables have different influences on the levels of depression and fatigue, and factors of their job stress have significant influences on the levels of depression and fatigue.
Therefore, this study suggests that governmental management should be provided for firemen that are classified as a high-risk group in occupational characteristics. Above all, the causes of stress should be diagnosed, its management goals should be set, and effective intervention programs should be provided.
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