이라크 방언 연구 - 음운과 형태적인 측면을 중심으로
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- a Study of Iraqi Colloquial Arabic
-Focusing on Phonology & Morphology-
Advisor : Prof. Jung, Kyu-Young, Ph.D.
Department of Arabic and Islamic Studies,
Graduate School of Chosun University
Arabic, which belongs to Semite and is widely used in the Middle East and North Africa, has the characteristics of diglossia with formal Arabic and colloquial Arabic that ordinary people use in daily life. Colloquial Arabic has changed constantly and naturally and has pronunciations and vocabularies and grammatical rules different from Classical Arabic. However, current Arabic education focusing on formal language has failed to maximize learners' effective communicative competence. Therefore, this study, based upon this desperate need for colloquial Arabic education, explored phonemes and morphological characteristics of Iraqi Arabic, one of the Arabic dialects. Iraqi Arabic has 31 consonants including the emphatic consonant /l/ and /g/,/č/and /p/ which do not exist in Classical Arabic. This study classified these consonants into distinctive consonants - / ’/, /q/, /k/, /ḍ/, /ð̣/, /ḷ/, /g/, /č/, /p/ - and general consonants, and compared them. The characteristics of distinctive consonants are glottal stops, vowel shortening in which long vowels become short when they come before /'/, /k/ sounds being replaced by a special phonetic value /č/, Classical Arabic // being overlapped with /ð̣/ instead of not being kept, and emphatic /ḷ/ being widely used. Again, /t/, one of the general consonants, shows assimilation similar to Classical Arabic.
Initial consonants clusters are the first elements of consonant clusters widely used in Iraqi Arabic can have any consonants, if /'/ does not come as the first element of the clusters. final consonant clusters occur only in pause states (al-waqf) in Classical Arabic, while they can be avoided in Iraqi Arabic by adding vowel insertion.
The comparison of vowels showed that distinction between Classical Arabic and Iraqi Arabic mainly lies in short vowels rather than long vowels. The vowel /a/ in Classical Arabic tends to be replaced with /i/ and /u/ or be omitted. It is especially noted that /CaCiiC/ is pronounced as /CCiiC/ and /CiCiiC/. There are three types of deviation in the usage of /i/ in Iraqi Arabic: 1) the vowel /a/ is replaced with the vowel /i/ in the categories of /CaCiiC/ and /CaCaC/, 2) vowel insertions are added to avoid final consonant clusters, 3) the vowel /i/ in /CiCaaC/ is omitted in most cases and occurs as /CCaaC/ in Iraqi Arabic. The status of another vowel /u/ is also similar to that of /i/. Long vowels in Iraqi Arabic are almost similar to those in Classical Arabic, but there are cases of long vowels at the end being shortened and pronunciation of the long vowel /ii/ being changed.
Though morphological characteristics of Iraqi colloquial Arabic does not show very significant features, certain parts in comparison with Classical Arabic were mentioned in this study : In Iraqi Arabic, in addition to connecting constructions, /maal/ is used with suffix pronouns to indicate 'ownership. In other words, this study noted that Iraqi Arabic also shows small morphological differences from Classical Arabic such as omission and change of vowels in conjugations of verbs - for example, omission of the vowel stem /a/ in female third person singular and third person plural of perfect tenses and occurrence of aiding vowels in prefixes in imperfect tenses.
This study presented unique phonological characteristics of Iraqi dialect and identified morphological changes. For future directions, it is desirable that Arabic learners who are used to formal styles are given balanced teaching by exposing them to colloquial dialects out of formal style -centered teaching. More than anything else, it is necessary that learners understand phonological characteristics of each dialect first and practice them through intensive listening to formal styles and other phonetic values. Morphological aspects should be addressed with a focus on the parts different from formal styles along with studies and understanding of idiomatic expressions in colloquial styles that could help understand social and cultural contexts
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