거래적 요인과 관계적 요인이 호텔의 아웃소싱 성과에 미치는 영향

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The entire hotel industry, the one at the core of tour industry, is experiencing a crisis due to the recent unfavorable management environment in Korea. In the past, domestic hotels attempted to achieve competitiveness simply by reducing their investment or labor costs or by restructuring manpower. However, the constant increase in labor costs and the prolonged depression have encouraged them to adopt outsourcing actively, as in other industries, as a survival and competitiveness strategy.
However, unlike the past outsourcing method, the current outsourcing is moving from a vertical and partially cooperative outsourcing type to a horizontal and collaborative co-sourcing type. That is, in order to increase the outsourcing effectiveness in a hotel business, the relationship between the outsourcer and the outsourcee should be horizontal partnership where both parties collaborate as participating and compatible partners, unlike in the old vertical relationship.
The purpose of the present study was to conduct empirical research on the effects of exchange factors and relationship factors on the outsourcing performance in a hotel industry. Specifically, the study investigated the effect of relationship factors, namely, termination costs, opportunity costs, communication, service quality, human relationship, on the quality of relationship and on the degree of outsourcing, which, in turn, affect the outsourcing performance. In addition, exploring the effects of the quality of relationship and the degree of outsourcing on oursourcing performance, the study delved into the moderating effects of internal resistance, the hotel size, previous outsourcing experience in an attempt to generate implications for productive management.
The data for the study was collected for approximately 2 months using questionnaires. 180 questionnaires were distributed to hotel employees who were in charge of outsourcing at different hotels in Seoul. Of the 176 questionnaires that were collected, 169 questionnaires were used for the analyses after 7 incomplete questionnaires were discarded.
The empirical results showed as follows. First, it was found that of the exchange and relationship factors in hotel outsourcing, termination costs and opportunity costs did not have a signigicant effect on the quality of relationship or the degree of utsourcing while communication had a significant effect on the quality of relationship. The results put emphasis on the importance of communication among the exchange and relationship factors, implying that hotels should strive for accurate delivery of information to and for better understanding from the outsourcee since satisfactory performance would be impossible without effective two-way communication.
Second, the results showed that the service quality of the outsourcee had a signigicant effect on the quality of relationship but not on the degree of outsourcing, which indicates that the outsourcee can establish more positive relationship with the hotel when they can provide kinder employees, faster service, lower costs, and better job performance. In addition, it was found that higher service quality provided by the outsourcing agency did not affect outsourcing expansion or adoption. It can be speculated that the finding was due to the fact that hotel outsourcing performance concentrates only on particular areas.
Third, the human relationship between the hotel and the outsourcee had a significant effect on the quality of relationship but not on the degree of outsourcing.
The results imply that human relationship, rather than contractual relationship, may improve the quality of relationship since personal connection and the maintenance of human relationship can positively affect exchange and relationship factors. Moreover, human relationship was found to have more powerful effects on the quality of relationship than relationship factors, indicating that mutual trust, satisfaction, and involvement are formed more by previous human relationship than by the contract-based relationship. However, it was also found that human relationship between the outsourcee and a hotel did not lead to a higher degree of outsourcing uses.
Fourth, the quality of relationship between the outsourcee and the hotel was found to have significant effects on both the degree and the performance of outsourcing. The results suggest that it is more effective for a hotel to work based on partnership rather than on the contract in conducting business with an outsourcee
Fifth, as to the effect of the quality of relationship between an outsourcee and a hotel on the performance of outsourcing, only the internal resistance showed a negative moderating effect, implying that the performance of outsourcing can be affected by the resistance of the organization members. Accordingly, it is necessary that hotel management put an endeavor to give their members a sense of security since their understanding and positive attitude toward outsourcing is utmost important. to increase the effectiveness of outsourcing. The study also found that the size of a hotel or its previous outsourcing experience do not affect the effectiveness of outsourcing. The results imply that efforts for better relationship with the outsourcee the and effective management of internal resistance are vital for successful outsourcing.
Sixth, the degree of outsourcing was found not to have a significant effect on the performance of outsourcing, suggesting that even though outsourcing is adopted in various areas, its effectiveness is not necessarily enhanced. The results also indicate that reinforcing the relationship with the outsourcee is more effective for better performance.
Seventh, as to the effects of the degree of outsourcing on its performance, only the previous outsourcing experience showed a negative moderating effect, suggesting although the degree of outsourcing has a direct positive effect on the performance, the performance is negatively affected by prior experience of outsourcing. It is speculated that previous outsourcing experience may incur lower performance because the lack of novelty may lead to inactive participation or may keep the employees from generating new ideas. The results imply that it is important for the hotel management to solve these problems and increase the effectiveness by reorganizing and training their staff in implementing the outsourcing strategy.
In conclusion, the findings of the study showed that in order to increase the effectiveness of outsourcing the relationship between the outsourcer and the outsourcee should be enhanced and the management of the outsourcer should control their possible internal resistance and utilize their previous outsourcing experience.
Alternative Title
The Effects of Exchange Factors and Relationship Factors on the Outsourcing Performancein Hotel Industry
Alternative Author(s)
Im, Bong Hyuk
朝鮮大學校 大學院
경영대학원 경영학과
Awarded Date
Table Of Contents
제 1장 서론 = 1
제 1절 문제의 제기 = 1
제 2절 연구의 목적 = 5
제 3절 논문의 구성 = 7
제 2장 이론적 배경 = 8
제 1절 아웃소싱의 이론적 고찰 = 8
1. 아웃소싱의 정의 = 8
2. 아웃소싱의 목적 = 9
3. 아웃소싱의 유사개념과 다양한 형태 = 11
4. 호텔경영의 아웃소싱도입 관련 이론 = 17
제 2절 관계마케팅의 이론적 고찰 = 26
1. 관계마케팅의 개념 = 26
2. 관계마케팅의 발전과정 = 29
3. 관계마케팅의 주요개념 = 30
제 3절 서비스품질 및 인간적 관계의 이론적 고찰 = 37
1. 서비스품질의 개념 및 정의 = 37
2. 인간적 관계의 개념 = 47
제 4절 호텔의 아웃소싱정도 및 성과와 성과에 미치는 영향에 있어 조절변수의 이론적 고찰 = 48
1. 호텔의 아웃소싱정도 및 성과의 개념 = 48
2. 호텔의 아웃소싱에 대한 조직내 저항 = 50
3. 호텔의 규모 및 아웃소싱 경험정도 = 50
제 3장 연구방법 및 가설설정 = 52
제 1절 연구모형의 설계 = 52
제 2절 가설의 설정 = 53
1. 거래 관계적요인과 관계의질 및 아웃소싱정도와의 관계 = 53
2. 아웃소싱업체요인인 서비스품질과 관계의 질 및 아웃소싱정도와의 관계 = 55
3. 호텔과 아웃소싱업체와의 인간적 관계형성과 관계의 질 및 아웃소싱정도와의 관계 = 56
4. 아웃소싱 위탁업체인 호텔과 수행업체간 관계의 질과 아웃소싱정도 및 성과와의 관계 = 56
5. 아웃소싱 위탁업체인 호텔과 아웃소싱 수행업체간 관계의 질이 아웃소싱 성과에 미치는 영향에 있어 조직내 저항 및 호텔규모, 아웃소싱 경험정도의 조절적 영향 = 57
6. 아웃소싱 위탁업체인 호텔의 아웃소싱정도와 성과의 관계 = 59
7. 아웃소싱 위탁업체인 호텔의 아웃소싱정도가 아웃소싱 성과에 미치는 영향에 있어 조직내 저항 및 호텔규모, 아웃소싱 경험정도의 조절적 영향 = 59
제 3절 변수의 조작적 정의 및 측정 = 61
1. 관계종결비용 = 61
2. 의사소통 = 61
3. 기회주의 = 62
4. 인간적 관계 = 62
5. 서비스품질 = 62
6. 관계의 질(신뢰·만족·몰입) = 62
7. 조직내 저항 및 호텔의 규모, 아웃소싱 경험정도 = 63
8. 아웃소싱정도와 성과 = 63
제 4장 실증분석 = 65
제 1절 기초자료 분석 = 65
1. 연구의 대상 및 자료의 수집 = 65
2. 표본에 대한 서술적 통계 = 65
제 2절 집단의 분류 및 변수의 신뢰도, 타당도 분석 = 70
1. 집단의 분류 = 70
2. 전체변수의 신뢰도 및 타당도 검증 = 71
제 3절 호텔의 아웃소싱관련 일반적 분석 및 가설검증 = 78
1. 호텔의 아웃소싱관련 일반분석 = 78
2. 가설검증 = 88
3. 가설검증 결과의 논의 = 89
제 5장 결론 = 98
제 1절 연구의 결론 = 98
제 2절 연구의 시사점 = 104
제 3절 연구의 한계점 및 제언 = 105
참고 문헌 = 107
설문지 = 116
朝鮮大學校 大學院
임봉혁. (2004). 거래적 요인과 관계적 요인이 호텔의 아웃소싱 성과에 미치는 영향.
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