조절초점 성향이 프리젠티즘을 통해 혁신행동과 이직의도에 미치는 영향

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Prevention Focus, Promotion Focus, Regulatory Focus, Presenteeism, Sickness Presenteeism, Innovative Behavior, Turnover Intention, Job Autonomy
Not long after entering the 21st century and following the global economic recession, a significant number of organizations have conducted downsizing or reengineering stemming from increased global competition, attempting to do more with less. The work environment has thus changed dramatically and arguably may have increased the prevalence of presenteeism from associated rise in job insecurity. Presenteeism refers to attending work while ill, or succinctly put, “unhealthy and present” or “sickness presenteeism. In other words, presenteeism occurs when employees are physically present, but they feel they should take leave.
The majority of the existing work relating presenteeism is conducted in the public health and nursing field in the mostly developed Western societies. As many scholars have argued, insights from more diverse research perspectives such as human resources management, organizational behaviors, and organizational psychology may benefit the theoretical development in this field. It is necessary because although recent organizational studies have looked at antecedents of presenteeism focusing almost exclusively on features of the work context and organizational culture. Furthermore, the researches have overlooked individual characteristics such as personality and attitudes, and approached it as merely an overt behavior, as well as the underlying psychological process of such an act as “why people decide to work while sick and what drives it?” Thus, one aim of the current study is to unravel the underlying psychological and intrinsic motives of the act to better understand presenteeism as a personal experience.
Since there have been little surveys on presenteeism in Korea, what proportion of this long working hour is contributed by presenteeism phenomenon is unknown. However, it is reasonable to speculate that under the cultural imperative of hardworking and perseverance, Korean employees may be more likely to work even when ill, employees may push themselves to work when ill to project a good image and avoid social sanctions. The cultural imperative for hardworking, compounded with the prevailing pressure for working long hours, may exacerbate the problem of presenteeism for Korean employees, which makes it a worthy subject for this research. Thus, another purpose of the current study is to systematically examine possible consequences of the phenomenon of presenteeism derived from Korean employees’ chronic disposition influenced by personality and early life experiences and behavioral outcomes to highlight the gravity of the presenteeism problem.
Thus the followings are hypothesized and the results are stated.
Hypothesis 1 and 2 stated that prevention focus and promotion focus would be positively and negatively related to presenteeism, respectively. Both the two personality traits after controlling demographic variables such as sex, age, academic background, marriage, employment status, service period, and business type were entered, and organizational pressure for attendance was also controlled. Regression analysis was implemented to test the empirical model. The results are reported that promotion focus significantly negatively predicted presenteeism and prevention focus also positively predicted presenteeism. Therefore, Hypothesis 1 and Hypothesis 2 were supported.
Hypothesis 3 and 4 stated that presenteeism would be negatively related to Innovative Behaviors(IB) and positively related to Turnover Intention(TI). Again, to test the empirical model, regression analysis was implemented. The results are reported that presenteeism significantly negatively predicted IB, whereas presenteeism significantly positively predicted TI. Therefore, Hypothesis 3 and 4 were supported.
Hypothesis 5 through 8 stated that the effects of prevention focus on IB and TI would be mediated through presenteeism, and also the effects of promotion focus on IB and TI would be mediated through presenteeism. To test the empirical model, regression analysis was implemented as well and the procedures of Baron & Kenny(1986) for the mediation effects analysis were followed. The results are reported that the effects of prevention focus on two dependent variables were so all statistically significant that did it mediate all two variables. And, the direct effects of prevention focus on IB was negatively significant, and the direct effect of prevention focus on TI was positively significant. And the results are reported that the effects of promotion focus on all two dependent variables were statistically significant. Thus with the mediation effect of presenteeism, promotion focus negatively predicted TI, and positively predicted IB. Therefore, Hypothesis 5, 6, 7 and 8 were supported.
Hypothesis 9 and 10 stated that job autonomy will moderate the relationship between presenteeism and IB such that the negative relationship between presenteeism and IB will be stronger when the level of job autonomy is low (H9), and that job autonomy will moderate the relationship between presenteeism and TI such that the positive relationship between presenteeism and TI will be stronger when the level of job autonomy is low (H10). To test the Hypotheses, a series of hierarchical regression analysis were conducted. The results are reported that all Hypothesis were supported.
Main purpose of the present research was to shed light on possible individual and dispositional regulatory focus for committing presenteeism, to remedy for shortcomings in the existing literature which mainly focuses on the antecedents’ correlates of presenteeism. Thus in the current study, two diverse personal regulatory focuses for presenteeism were delineated and the work consequences of presenteeism were systematically explored.
Considering the understanding that there are many studies relating presenteeism to both antecedents and consequences but it has not often been studied with a view to relate it to personality and especially to individual chronic dispositional traits, the findings from the current study are unique and distinct as we focused on the psychological process of personal chronic dispositions leading to the act of presenteeism within Korean organizational context, which no one has never attempted in Korea. The findings of the diverse dispositional regulatory focus for presenteeism would provide a unique contribution to the literature. More important, as I have demonstrated in this study, presenteeism would not only depress employees’ TI but discourage IB. And the current study delineated job autonomy would play a key role of mitigating the negative effects of presenteeism on organizational performance and productivity. Thus I urge organizations and managers to pay more attention to employees’ act of presenteeism and to manage personal discomfort effectively with appropriate job design by adapting the climate of autonomy in organizational management.
Alternative Title
The Effects on Innovative Behavior and Turnover Intention through Presenteeism with the Chronic Regulatory Focus : Focusing on the Moderation Effects of Job Autonomy
Alternative Author(s)
Chun, Byung Yoon
일반대학원 경영학과
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Table Of Contents

제1장 서론 1
제1절 연구의 필요성 및 연구 목적 1
1. 연구의 필요성 1
2. 연구 목적 8
제2절 연구의 구성 및 방법 10
1. 연구의 구성 10
2. 연구방법 11

제2장 이론적 배경 13
제1절 프리젠티즘 13
1. 프리젠티즘의 개념 13
2. 프리젠티즘의 선행연구 21
가. 선행요인 관련 주요 연구 22
나. 결과변수 관련 주요 연구 25
다. 다른 변수들과의 관계에 관한 주요 연구 26
제2절 조절초점이론 34
1. 조절초점의 개념 34
2. 조절초점의 선행연구 44
1.1.1. 가. 선행요인 관련 주요 연구 45
1.1.2. 나. 결과변수 관련 주요 연구 46
1.1.3. 다. 다른 변수들과의 관계 관련 주요 연구 47
제3절 직무자율성 49
1. 직무자율성의 개념 49
2. 직무자율성의 선행연구 55
가. 동기와 관련된 주요 연구 56
나. 직무특성 성과에 관련된 주요 연구 57
다. 결과변수 관련 주요 연구 60
라. 다른 이론으로 직무자율성을 설명한 주요 연구 62
제4절 혁신행동 66
1. 혁신행동의 개념 66
2. 혁신행동의 선행연구 69
제5절 이직의도 71
1. 이직의도의 개념 71
2. 이직의도의 선행연구 73

제3장 연구설계 및 조사방법 75
제1절 연구모형 및 가설설정 75
1. 연구모형의 설정 75
2. 연구가설의 설정 76
제2절 변수의 측정 및 설문지 구성 89
1. 변수의 측정 89
2. 설문지 구성 95
제3절 자료 수집 및 분석방법 98
1. 조사개요 98
2. 표본의 특성 98
3. 자료 분석 100

제4장 실증분석 102
제1절 측정도구의 검증 102
1. 타당도 분석 102
2. 신뢰도 검증 108
제2절 상관관계 분석 108
제3절 연구가설의 검증 111
1. 조절초점 성향이 프리젠티즘에 미치는 영향 111
2. 프리젠티즘이 혁신행동에 미치는 영향 113
3. (조절초점 성향과 혁신행동) 프리젠티즘의 매개효과 114
4. 프리젠티즘이 이직의도에 미치는 영향 116
5. (조절초점 성향과 이직의도) 프리젠티즘의 매개효과 118
6. (프리젠티즘과 혁신행동) 직무자율성의 조절효과 119
7. (프리젠티즘과 이직의도) 직무자율성의 조절효과 121
제4절 가설검증 결과 요약 124

제5장 결론 126
제1절 연구결과 해석 126
1. 연구목적 126
2. 연구결과의 해석 127
제2절 연구의 시사점 131
1. 학문적 시사점 131
2. 실무적 시사점 132
제3절 향후 연구방향 136

【참고문헌】 138
【부록】설문지 173
조선대학교 대학원
전병윤. (2017). 조절초점 성향이 프리젠티즘을 통해 혁신행동과 이직의도에 미치는 영향.
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