천연방사성물질 취급 국내 주요산업체에 대한 안전관리 방안 연구

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NROM , Safety Management

Study of the NORM Safety Management for Major Domestic NORM Industry

Kim Ha Im
Advisor : Prof. Lee Gyeong Jin, Ph.D.
Department of Nuclear Engineering
Graduate School of Chosun University

In 2011, low level radiation dose was detected from the asphalt on the road of Weolgae-dong in Seoul. The asphalt was made of recycled scraps of imported steel which is categorized as NORM(Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material). Since then, it has become an emerging environmental and social issue of ensuring radiation safety in the neighborhood of individual life. The government enacted the‘NORM Safety Management Law’ in 2012 to protect the environment and people from radiation exposure in their everyday life.
As ‘NORM Safety Management Law’was established and implemented, it became a radiation safety issue for the NORM industries which handle large amount of raw materials with NORMs and process residues(technically enhanced NORM, TENORM) to understand the behavior of the industrial NORM and manage the NORM processes and radiation exposures of the workers. Therefore, it is necessary to perform on-site survey for major NORM industries thus improving the working environment in order to protect workers from radiation exposure. Until now, studies on the safety management of NORM process residues are performed by analyzing first radionuclide behavior and then the safety management practices of the NORM industries.
Two steps were developed for the on-site radiation survey and characterization of the NORMs; Preliminary discussions with NORM industry for the needs of the on-site radiation survey for the NORM safety management and developing procedures for the on-site radiation survey after reviewing the process flows and work environments.
On-site radiation survey methodology has been developed for a chemical plant manufacturing aluminum hydroxide and calcined aluminium from Bauxite as follows: (1) Real-time radiation dose measurement of raw materials and NORMs using Inspector 1000-NaI γ-ray detector; (2) Measurement of ambient particle size distribution and radioactive nuclide concentration using Cascade Impactor at work places with dust using Cascade Impactor; (3) Measurement of accumulated doses of workers using Glass Dosimeter in places where the workers are exposed to NORMs for a long period of time; (4) Quantitative analysis of radioactive nuclide and radioactivity concentrations of the raw materials as well as the field NORM samples including process residues and scales.
As a result of the on-site measurements and quantitative analyses of NORM sample for the aluminum hydroxide and calcined aluminum manufacturing plant, a maximum of 0.46 mSv/y radiation dose was measured at the open residue storage. This is lower than the 1.0 mSv/y annual dose limit for the general public. The measured radioactivity concentration of the Bauxite was 0.1056 Bq/g for 238U and 0.1625 Bq/g for 232Th, respectively, which are higher than the raw material radioactivity concentration of 0.1 Bg/g. For pipe scales, the measured radioactivity concentration was 0.8575 Bq/g for 238U, which is higher than the definition of NORM, which is 0.5 Bg/g.
Both Bauxite and pipe scales of the chemical plant manufacturing aluminum hydroxide and calcined aluminum from Bauxite can be defined as raw material and NORM as defined in the “NORM Safety Management Law” but not required for the registration since the annual total radioactive concentrations are less than the limit set by Article 4 of “NORM Safety Management Law”
The NORM process characteristics and safety management practices of the NORM industry were studied through on-site radiation survey and quantitative analyses for a chemical plant manufacturing aluminum hydroxide and calcined aluminum from Bauxite.
Through the investigation of the on-site radiation survey and quantitative analyses of a major NORM industry, important NORM safety management issues were identified and comprehensive NORM safety management strategies were proposed in this study.
In the future, this study can be further applied to investigate the NORM process characteristics and develop NORM safety management and regulatory guidelines for he domestic NORM industries. Therefore, the results of the study can be utilized to improve working environment as well as the workers’ radiation exposures at the NORM industries and thus promotes public acceptance of the NORM safety.
Alternative Title
Study of the NORM Safety Management for Major Domestic NORM Industry
Alternative Author(s)
kim haim
조선대학교 원자력공학과
일반대학원 원자력공학
Awarded Date
Table Of Contents
목 차


제1장 서 론 1
제1절 연구 배경 및 필요성 1
제2절 연구 목적 2

제2장 본 론 2
제1절 국내외 공정부산물의 법적 기준 검토 2
1. 국외 공정부산물 적용 기준 2
가. IAEA 공정부산물 규제기준 2
나. 유럽연합 공정부산물 규제기준 7
다. 미국 환경보호청 공정부산물 규제기준 9
라. 영국 공정부산물 규제기준 14
2. 국내 공정부산물 적용 기준 16
가. 원료물질 및 공정부산물의 방사능 농도 기준 16
나. 원료물질 및 공정부산물 취급자 등록 17
다. 생활주변방사선방호 종합계획 수립 8
라. 연도별 시행계획 수립 18
마. 생활주변방사선 안전관리 실태 조사․분석 19
바. 공정부산물 처리․처분 또는 재활용 20
사. 방사선․방사능 감시기의 설치․운영 20
3. 국내외 공정부산물 적용 기준 비교 및 분석 21
제2절 수산화알루미늄 제조 산업 공정부산물 공정특성 분석 22
1. 현장탐색 사전준비 22
가. 사전 설명회 22
나. 현장탐색 계측방법 23
(1) 공정부산물 시료 채취 24
(2) Inspector 1000-NaI 현장 계측방법 25
(3) 유리선량계 현장 설치 방법 26
(4) Cascade Impactor 현장 설치 방법 27
2. 공정부산물 현장탐색 28
가. 회사 현황 28
나. 제조 공법 및 흐름도 29
다. 현장탐색 32
(1) 시료 채취 : 방사능 농도 정량분석 32
(2) 공간감마선량 계측 : Inspector 1000-NaI 34
(3) 작업자 외부피폭 측정 : 유리선량계(Glass Dosimeter) 36
(4) 작업자 내부피폭 측정 : Cascade Impactor 38
3. 공정부산물 거동특성 분석 및 평가 39
가. 방사능 농도 정량분석 39
나. 공간감마선량 측정 42
다. 작업자 외부피폭 측정 45
라. 작업자 내부피폭 측정 46
제3절 수산화알루미늄 제조 산업 공정부산물 방사능 영향 평가 51

제3장 결 론 53

참고문헌 55
조선대학교 대학원
김하임. (2016). 천연방사성물질 취급 국내 주요산업체에 대한 안전관리 방안 연구.
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