장애인 의무고용제도 변동과정에 관한 연구

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A Study on the Policy Change of Quota System
for the Disabled in Korea
: Focusing on the incremental characteristics of policy change

Park Sang-do
Advisor : Prof. Lee Min-chang, Ph.D.
Departmant of Public Administration
Graduate School of Chosun University

This study has its purpose to analyze mandatory quota system for the disabled by focusing on the incremental properties of the policy-changing process.
This study also has its aim to confirm the incremental properties of policy-changing process of quota system for the disabled in Korea based on incremental theory that Wildavsky has asserted.
The subject of study is a hiring policy for the disabled from 1990 to recent times that has been settled legal bases of quota system for the disabled. In concrete, the subjects of study were 「promotion of employment of disabled persons and vocational rehabilitation」and transitional process of both quota system for the disabled which was enforced based on it and the central government and government-affiliated organization.
A study hypothesis, "the policy can be changed based on an incremental decision-making," is set and to verify this hypothesis, among component of quota system of disabled person in Korea, five factors including the disabled, business owner, employment quota, disabled employment levy, disabled employment subsidies have been analyzed as an analysis variable.

A quota system for disabled person has been modified and supplemented through 88 revisions during over 25 years from 1990 when the law has been enacted. Prior to its process, the modifications made on five analysis variables are as follows.
First, it is a change in recognition range for the disabled. The recognition range of the disabled has accepted registered disabled person according to a「disabled person welfare law」 in 1990 when the law enacted, however, in 1999, it has added meritorious persons and disabled persons suffering an industrial accident, in 2003 and in 2005, it has excluded 10th~14th level disabled persons suffering an industrial accident, and all of disabled persons suffering an industrial accident respectively to be modified to a present condition which includes registered disabled person applied to a 「disabled person welfare law」and person who applied to a 「law of respect and support of meritorious persons」.
Second, it is an application standard of business owner. The standard of business owner applied to the disabled quota system has extended from business owner who employs more than 300 full-time workers in 1990 to business owner who employs more than 50 full-time workers in 2004. For the standard of business owner who is subject of allotment, however, it has been narrowed its object by allowing business owner who has more than 100 full-time employers and the changing width of applied business owner has also relieved to be reduce allotment by 1/2 during initial 5 years.
Third, it is a change of employment quota. The initial employment quota has begun from 1% of full-time employer in 1991 to be increased to 1.6% in 1992 and 2% in 1993. After that, there were no changes for approximately 6 years, however, employment quota of national and local government has been raised to 3% in 2009, and employment quota of private sector has been determined to gradually increase to 2.3%, 2.5%, 2.7%, 2.9%, and 3.1% in 2010, 2012, 2014, 2017 and 2019 respectively.
Forth, it is a change on applied object of disabled person employment levy and fundamental burden amount. As stated earlier, the business owner who is a subject of allotment has been extended from those who employs more than 300 full-time employers to 200 and 100 full-time employers in 2006 and 2007 respectively, and the initial 5 years allotment amount has reduced to 50%, thus, it has relieved impact of applied object extension on business owner
The fundamental burden amount which is determined at the range over 60% of monthly converted minimum wage amount has been interlocked with an increase of annual minimum wage amount to increase from 120000won in 1991 to 207000won in 1999. After that, a differential allotment collection based on an employment rate which was implemented without a legal evidence from 2000 to 2001 has abolished and it has settled at the range over 60% of monthly converted minimum wage amount without having any significant to report. In 2005, the differential collection system based on employment rate has been re-implemented by preparing legal evidences, and a fundamental burden amount has been frozen to 500000won from 2005 to 2008. In 2011, for business owners who have not employed a handicapped person, the system that uses monthly converted minimum wage as a fundamental burden amount has implemented, and in 2013, the differential collection of burden amount has been subdivided from 2 to 4. In addition, a fundamental burden amount has also changed through multiple steps as a subdivision has been divided into 5 in 2015.
Fifth, it is a change of unit cost of employment subsidies for the disabled. During an enactment, based on a condition of business owner responsible for obligatory employment, the unit price has been differentiated to be applied by separating a support fund(business owner responsible for obligatory employment) and subsidies(business owner not responsible for obligatory employment), and in 1994, the unit cost of payment of subsidies and support fund has been unified. After that, From 1994 to June, 2000, the unit cost of subsidies has modified from 119000won to 216000won. In July, 2000, an integration of support fund and subsidies has made as well as differential unit price system (4 level) based on degree of disability and gender which causes it to increase from 474000won to 829000won.
In 2004, by diminishing differential unit price from existing 4 steps to 3 steps, the policy was re-enacted to prevent unit price of subsidies from exceeding 75% of wage that the disabled earns. In 2010, for a serious handicapped person, the differential unit cost system based on the date an employee was hired has introduced and for a mild handicapped person(6, 7th level), the system to support for 4 years has also introduced. In 2016, with the increase of advancing regulation of unit cost for serious female disabled from 500000 to 600000won, the unit cost of subsidies have also gone through stepwise regulation procedures.

According to modification processes of 5 analysis variables for the disabled quota system that has been analyzed in this study so far, what makes a change of quota system for the disabled? Is it because of overall and deductive changes? or is it because of incremental and inductive policy decision-making process?
Given modification processes of 5 analysis variables, it can be contended that except for initial decision-making contents made during an enactment, remained modification processes have gone through incremental decision-making and stepwise changes, because modification contents of every policy change a bit based on the previous contents. All of analysis variables, especially modification processes of employment allotment for the disabled, is the case. When it comes to extending an allotment applying object, in the processes of extending standard from business owner hiring more than 300 full-time employers to 100 full-time employers, it has been extended gradually from 300 to 200 and 200 to 100. In that processes, the policy to reduce 50% of burden amount for initial 5 years from extending point is a policy which has its aim to relieve burden of newly applied business owner and this seems to be the best example to show incremental changes of policy.

Therefore, it has been identified that the most essential quota system for the disabled among disabled employment policies is the policy modified incrementally by comparing with existing policies and considering side issues at first rather than a policy experiencing overall changes based on rational theory. In addition, it has been verified that an analysis hypothesis that policy changes relying on an incremental decision-making way as researcher of this study has suggested.
Alternative Title
A Study on the Policy Change of Quota System for the Disabled in Korea
Alternative Author(s)
Park, Sang Do
조선대학교 대학원
일반대학원 공공행정학과
Awarded Date
Table Of Contents
목 차


제1장 서론 ························································1
제1절 연구목적 ····················································1
제2절 연구대상 및 방법 ·············································3

제2장 이론적 배경 및 분석틀 ································4
제1절 정책변동 ·······················································4
1. 정책변동의 의의 ····························································4
2. 점증이론 ····································································12
제2절 장애인 의무고용제도 ········································15
1. 장애인 의무고용제도의 의의 ···········································15
2. 해외사례 ······································································17
제3절 연구의 분석틀 ················································23

제3장 장애인 의무고용제도 형성 및 변동과정 ···············26
제1절 장애인 의무고용제도의 형성 ·································26
1. 개요 ·········································································26
2. 장애인 의무고용제도 도입 시 주요내용 ·······························32
제2절 장애인 의무고용제도의 변동 과정 ····························36
1. 개요 ·········································································36
2. 장애인 ········································································36
3. 사업주 ········································································41
4. 의무고용률 ··································································44
5. 고용부담금 ··································································48
6. 고용장려금 ··································································56

제4장 분석결과 ·················································61
제1절 점증적 변동의 특징 ·············································61
1. 장애인 : 실현가능한 범위 내에서 변동 ·······························61
2. 사업주 : 변동 충격 완화를 고려한 변동 ······························62
3. 의무고용률 : 수용가능한 단계적 변동 ·································63
4. 고용부담금 : 변동 충격 완화, 노동시장 변화에 연동한 변동 ····63
5. 고용장려금 : 기존 정책의 유지 ··········································64
제2절 장애인 의무고용제도의 순응 ···································69
1. 장애인 고용률의 변동 ·····················································69
2. 장애인 의무고용제도의 순응요인 ·······································70

제5장 결론 ···················································71
제1절 함의 ····························································71
1. 이론적 함의 ··································································71
2. 정책적 함의 ··································································72
제2절 향후 연구 방향 ···············································73

조선대학교 대학원
박상도. (2016). 장애인 의무고용제도 변동과정에 관한 연구.
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General Graduate School > 3. Theses(Master)
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