탁주 제조업체 위생수준 분석을 통한 위생등급 관리제도 연구

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Korea liquor policy has been strongly promoted in terms of tax policy for securing national financial resources and grain policy for solving food problems but a liquor industry supporting policy and liquor consumer protection policy has been overlooked. Not only the liquor industry is still on growing but also the liquor takes 6.6% out of contamination cases according to the 2008 data result from Korea Consumer Protection Board. The consumer anxiety and distrust of liquor is increased. Therefore, sanitation and safety management of liquor such as Takju is strongly needed.
In this study, we investigated sanitation management conditions of Takju manufactures and tried to suggest improvements for effective sanitation management level after over viewing the examples of liquor industry such as the Takju and sanitation grade control system. Belows are investigation results of this study.
First, after the inauguration of National Tax Service in 1966, National Tax Service had responsible for liquor management but it was transferred to Ministry of Food and Drug Safety(MFDS) by signing an agreement(MOU) on June 1st, 2010 for the better response to the change of liquor industry. As MFDS, food safety expert organization, takes the management role of liquor safety, not only professional, comprehensive and anticipative management has become possible but also it has become a chance to give the public the faith and the relief.
Second, we found that there were several cases of sanitation level introduction to food related company. In the case of Korea, they applied it to food manufacturers, and restaurant, and in the case of United States of America, Canada, China, Japan and etc. were applied it to restaurant. As applying this grading system to liquor manufacturers, basic research is needed for effective and systematic safety management of liquor.
Third, sanitation management for facility, ingredients, general, equipments, manufacture, process, products and etc. of 638 Takju manufacturers were analyzed.
1) Sanitation level of facility, ingredients, equipments and others were showed satisfactory, but sanitation level of general, manufacture and process were showed questionable which means critical control is needed. Especially, the gap of levels was appeared in general, manufacture and process sanitation management. Also, the assessment result of general sanitation management which needs critical control was average score of 22.2±10.9 out of 45 and it showed huge deviation.
2) The weakness part were dirt management, hygiene and private sanitation parts. It was much poor than general food manufacturers and processing factories. In details, consumers complaints need to be recorded and managed so to prevent the problems and do private health check-up considering contaminations from the patients or carriers with infectious diseases. Especially, microorganisms, minerals, heavy metals and etc. in waters for manufacturing Takju should be checked so to produce safety Takju but several companies did not perform periodic water quality testing.
3) and they have gotten the score of 29.4±13.7 out of score 46 for the assessment result of manufacture and process management. The companies who received lowest sanitation level had no prevention system for the entry and harboring of insects and other pests mainly in fermentation room. Maturing or fermentation tanks were managed unsanitary and there was no proper managing to prevent adulteration of dirt and debris before filling Takju in bottles.
4) 43 Takju samples on sales were picked up and coliform which is sanitary indicative bacterium, E.coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus were tested. In the case of Bacillus cereus, classifying the ranks of sanitation level of 3 or 5, it was not detected in A level which is a highest level. However, the rate of the detection of it were very high in the lowest level. Therefore, we could conclude that there is a relation between Bacillus cereus and the sanitary level indicator. Also, in the sanitary managing score of 35.4 to 84.4, the case of 8 out of 30 cases were evenly distributed and we found that specifying the sanitary managing levels for the better sanitary management is more reasonable. Coliform, E.coli and Stapylococcus aureus as the sanitary indication.
Fourth, as to see the results of analyzing unrefined Takju manufacturers through 3 and additional 5 sanitation levels generally used in food manufacturers, specifying in 5 sanitation levels were much better than the 3 levels and the following features are belows.
1) Comparing the number of corresponding manufacturers of each group, the it was evenly distributed in 5 sanitation levels than 3 levels and it showed in more details in distinctions of sanitation safety management.
2) The sanitation management level of facility was assessed more accurately with 5 sanitation levels rather than 3 sanitation levels. Health check-up and private sanitation items among the results of general sanitation management assessments showed significant differences in both 3 and 5 sanitation levels. Proper managing for pest control, sanitary of fermentation and maturing tanks and for preventing adulteration of dirt and debris before packing showed difference between 3 and 5 sanitation levels.
3) And it showed specifying the sanitation level in 5 rather than 3 is more proper to enhance the effectiveness of sanitation management in each level of products' microbiological test results.
According to these contents, it is better to specify the sanitation level in 5 than level in 3 and it is needed to make suitable plans of sanitation and safety management for each companies because the deviation among companies were much huge in liquor manufacturers than food manufacturers according to these contents.
Refer to the study result, I suggest several directions to manage Takju manufacturers in accordance with each manufacturer's sanitation level.
First, give each Takju manufacturer the grade and make management system suitable for each level. Specifying the sanitation level in 5 and let the manufacturers who have gotten the highest level A make self check-up lists, make them report periodically and give priority of HACCP(Hazard Analysis Critical Control System) finance support. Give a consultation and check-up annually for the manufacturers who have gotten Level B and support the finance for HACCP consultation and facility fixing. Give twice a year consultations and check-ups for the manufacturer who have got level C. Give a chance to tour the greatest manufacturer and give financial support for making and spreading manuals and for pest control who have got level D. Spread manuals of basic sanitation management to whom have got level E and perform campaign considering an age of business managers and producing manager, the year of the construction and lagging facilities, and let experts visit the factories and make/perform the specified adequate managing programs.
Second, develop and spread a HACCP model of unrefined Takju for introduction of HACCP. Also, activate HACCP consultation. For this, educating and promoting liquor related experts of liquor manufacturers/processors and managing facilities or equipments for the sanitation is needed. HACCP performed and conducted the policy only for the food manufacturers. However, a HACCP model for Takju should be developed because the liquor is different from general fermentable foods in in-process method and critical control points(CCPs).
Third, tour programs to visit excellent manufacturers should be activated. Each company should give staff a chance to learn managing method and technic by seeing the example factories for the progress in sanitation level.
The last not the least, introduction of pre-consultation for new liquor manufacture is needed. It is difficult to enhance the level of sanitation and safety management by facilities set out in legislation. Specified pre-consultation for adequate building, facilities and equipments, fermentation room, pest screen and facilities for preventing adulteration is needed.
Alternative Title
Study on the sanitary grading system by sanitary status analysis of Takju manufacturers
Alternative Author(s)
Ahn, Yeong Soon
일반대학원 식품의약학과
Awarded Date
Table Of Contents
표 목 차 Ⅴ
그 림 목 차 Ⅶ

제1장 서 론 1

제 1 절 연구목적 및 필요성 1

제 2 절 탁주의 개요 및 주류의 정의 3
1. 탁주의 개요 3
2. 주류의 정의 및 종류 5
가. 주류의 정의 5
나. 주세법에 따른 주류의 종류 6

제 3 절 주류의 종류별 제조방법 12
1. 주류의 종류별 제조방법 12
2. 탁주의 제조방법 12
3. 약주의 제조방법 13
4. 과실주의 제조방법 15
5. 청주의 제조방법 15
6. 희석식 소주의 제조방법 17
7. 맥주의 제조방법 17

제 4 절 탁주 산업 현황 및 주류 소비 실태 현황 19
1. 탁주 등 주류 산업 현황 19
2. 탁주 등 주류 소비 실태 현황 27

제 5 절 국내외 주류안전관리 제도 현황 30
1. 국내의 주류 안전관리 제도 30
2. 외국의 주류 안전관리 제도 31
가. 미국 31
나. 일본 35
다. 중국 35
라. 캐나다 36
마. 독일 39

제2장 연구 방법 40
제 1 절 주류 관련 이론적 고찰 및 국내외 제도 현황 40
제 2 절 국내 주류 제조업체 현황 및 등급제 유사 제도 40
제 3 절 탁주 제조업체 위생수준 조사 40
1. 조사대상 및 조사방법 40
2. 미생물 검사 43
가. 대장균군 43
나. 대장균 43
다. 황색포도상구균 43
라. 바실러스세레우스 44
3. 조사자료 통계 분석 44

제 3장 결과 및 고찰 46
제 1 절 국내 주류 제조업체 현황
및 등급제 유사 제도 분석 46
1. 국내 주류 제조업체 현황 46
2. 등급제 유사제도 분석 48
가. 국내 위생관리 등급제도 48
(1) 식품제조․가공업소 위생관리 등급 48
(2) 음식점 위생등급 관리제도 51
나. 외국의 음식점 위생등급제 52
(1) 미국 로스앤젤레스의 식품접객업소 위생관리 등급제도 52
(2) 캐나다 토론토의 식품업소점검과 공개제도 55
(3) 중국 북경시의 요식업 위생등급 57
(4) 일본의 표준영업약정제도 58

제 2 절 탁주 제조업체 위생수준 조사결과 61
1. 국내 탁주 제조업체 위생 및 안전관리 현황 61
2. 위생수준 종합평가 65
3. 3등급제 평가 69
가. 영역별 평가점수 69
나. 시설 위생관리 평가결과 69
다. 일반 위생관리 평가결과 75
라. 원․부재료 관리 평가결과 79
마. 기구류 관리 평가결과 82
바. 제조․공정 관리 평가결과 85
사. 제품관리 평가결과 88
아. 기타 평가결과 91
4. 5등급제 평가 93
가. 영역별 평가점수 93
나. 시설 위생관리 평가결과 95
다. 일반 위생관리 평가결과 98
라. 원․부재료 관리 평가결과 101
마. 기구류 관리 평가결과 101
바. 제조․공정 관리 평가결과 105
사. 제품관리 평가결과 105
아. 기타 평가결과 106
5. 위생관리 수준에 따른 미생물 검사 결과 111
6. 3등급제와 5등급제 비교 분석 결과 114

제4장 제 언 117

제5장 결 론 124

제 6장 참고문헌 127

부록 132
조선대학교 대학원
안영순. (2014). 탁주 제조업체 위생수준 분석을 통한 위생등급 관리제도 연구.
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General Graduate School > 4. Theses(Ph.D)
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