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- 레살레주의 고타강령 노동계급
- This paper is a study on Ferndinand Lassalle, who led the social democracy reformism and accepted the ethnic nation. His opinion was different from the internationalis of the social revolutionists Marx and Engels. This paper deals with Lassalle as a reformer. And it is on the Gotha Programme. It was inevitably the mixture the Lassalleism and the Marxism.
After Failure of revolution in 1848, all individual labor movement disappeared. After the late 1850 some liberalists led lively labor movement, but liberalists think the laborers are just their political reserve force. So laborers pursuit their own independent political activity. In the early 1860s, Lassalle exclaimed the need of independent labor organization.
On May 23, 1863, laborers themselves founded the General German Workers' Association (Allgemeiner Deutscher Arbeiterverein: ADAV) with Lassalle who was its president. This was the first political associations of the Geman working class and forerunners of the German Social Democratic Party. Lassalle urged two slogans ; On was that, ADAV has a universal suffrage and the other was that, the government guaranteed the producers union.
At the end of the 1860s, a Marxist-inspired movement was growing up. The leading figures were August Bebel and Wilhelm Liebknecht. In 1869, they founded the Social Democratic Worker's Party(Sozialdemokratishe Arbeiterpartei: The Eisenachers) at the Eisenach conference. But the Social Democratic Worker's Party and Bebel were neither a Marxist party and nor a Marxist. The Eisenach Programme included the Lassallesim(a universal suffrage, a Iron Law of Wages, and the government guaranteed the producers union).
The Lassallians and the Eisenachers drew closer together. Bismarck's mounting hostitlity to socialism after the episode of the French Commune underlined the need for unity. In 1875 at the Gotha conference Lassallians and Eisenachers united to form the German Social Democratic Party (Sozialdemokratische Arbeiterpartei Deutschlands). The party accepted the Marxist analysis of society. But the party also declared that it would use only legal means in the struggle for economic and political freedom, and it still clung to the Lassallesim. Marx was strongly critical of the concessions to the Lassallians. After all the Gothaer Programme leaned to the Lassallesim.
The Lassalleism was lack of originality and it has its limit because of the Germany social particularity, but Lassalle was not an endurable theologist, he was an instigator. He tried to be awakened laborers and he vitalized the labor movement in German. So he was against the social revolution, took the reformism method, and formed the Germany Social Democracy ideology.
The Lassallesim constructed Lassalle's nation theory, producer cooperative association theory and democracy theory. The Lassalle's outlook of nation was criticized for a long time by Marx and Marxist who consider the nation is supposed to be upset. But Lassalle insisted that nation have a moral idea of human common society. Furthermore he required to get a emancipation of labor at nation. Lassalle's exclaimed the abolition of Iron Law of Wages(ehernes Lohngesetz) and induces the normal, direct election. Iron Law of Wages was limited by laborer's average minimum exist expense. Lassalle insisted that laborer establish the producer cooperative association that laborer has the right of possession and control for themselves. Also he insisted this producer cooperative association based on normal and direct election. But Lassalle's democracy theory is not a parliamentarism democracy but autocratic Jacobin democracy. The Lassalleism influenced the Gothaer Programme and the Germany Social Democratic Party.
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