일본어 「てある」의 의미·용법에 관한 연구
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The Meaning And Usage of「tearu」in Japanese
Adviser : Prof. Eui-sang Jung, Ph.D.
Major in Japanese Language Education
Graduate School of Education, Chosun University
We can classfy 「てある(tearu)」which has variety meaning-expressions into 2 meanings (standard meaning and derivative meaning), center on meaning and usage of it which represents Japanese's aspects as follows :
The verb using「てある」is directly work on an object and change it into the new condition, the only verb which indicates movement of human and animals shows a state of the consequence by combining with 「てある」.
The standard meaning of 「てある」 is 「Consequence-Condition」. This can be separated the one that a position of an object is changed according to the verb's uasge or the context and the another shows the change of an object.
And 「てある」's derivative meanings are 「Completion of Act」,「Noninterference」and 「Preparation」.
「Completion of Act」is not the condition of consequence that an object is changed, but just a condition after finish the action. 「Noninterference」means that the verb doesn't work on an object and leaves as it is, is expressed by the verb which shows the meaning of noninterference. 「Preparation」is the condition which has finishing up the action for some purpose. In this manner, 「てある」is interpreted on a variety of meanings according to the context.
「てある」means the continuance of consequence-condition that 「ておく(teoku)」is changed. 「ておく」acts for the preparation, while 「てある」represents that consequence-condition of the action is kept up as it stands.
「られてある(raretearu) means that removing the agent's purpose by pushing it forward much more than 「られている(rareteiru)」.
「てある」and 「ている」are commonly represented as the meaning-expression of 「Consequence-Condition」. But try to examine the difference, 「Intransitive Verb + ている」represents the consequence-condition of the action which is done by itself not by human's intention. On the other hand, 「Transitive Verb + てある」is the consequence-condition of the action which is done by some external intention or working. For this, 「Transitive Verb + られている」is also done by same things, but doesn't regard the intention of such action and working as a problem.
On this wise, we can know that 「てある」has a variety of meaning-expressions which is represented by not only lexical meaning of using verb but modified expression with the context.
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