日本語의 助動詞 「れる」「られる」의 硏究 : 受動·可能表現을 中心으로

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As significant part of Korean and Japanese languages is identical in grammar structures, there are many cases that learners of Japanese language use wrong expressions by applying characteristics of Korean language for Japanese. Therefore, this study believes that correct and organized instruction of Japanese through clear understanding of linguistic characteristics of Japanese is more important.
First, Japanese auxiliary verbs which have significant descriptive power are generally used as words of attachment, attached to inflected words to add meaning and attached to un-inflected words or inflected words for a function of description. However, problems relating to definition and affiliated words have not been solved yet.
Therefore, this study first suggests that characteristics of individual words should be clearly defined to be established as grammar system of Japanese language rather than entire identification of grammar characteristics.
Second, 「れる」and「られる」, auxiliary verbs of current Japanese are defined as those of passivity, possibility, autonomy and respect. They are variated forms which have difference only in connection and are not different in meaning and usage. For passivity, the subject of action is not used as a leader when subjects of action give others action, but the one who is given the action is a leader. It is used to describe condition. When the subject of action do his action by his will, the sentence to state whether it is possible to realize the action is possible sentence. And, autonomy means that emotion, thoughts, judgement, recognition and behaviors appear automatically irregardless of subject's will or in contrasting form. Finally, respect is designed to show respect the persons who are located in the subject place of a sentence, which is also called a subject respect word. The four meanings are one family and such classification is designed for convenience. In other words,as single forms of「れる」and「られる」have various meanings, they require good sense to understand.
Third, of the meanings of auxiliary verbs, 「れる」and「られる」, passivity is used in the following cases : ① when the subject of corresponding active sentence should not be known ② when the persons who are influenced are nearer than those who influence ③ when the subject of subordinate clause is unified with that of the main clause and ④ when feeling of damage is expressed. One of the characteristics of current Japanese passivity is that intransitive verbs can be used for passivity. However, this is limited to indirect passivity. Indirect passivity unlike direct passivity means that corresponding active sentence does not exist in grammar and the leader of action who corresponds to the subject or reason is indirect. In contrast, direct passivity is designed to express the cases when the leader of action or reason is direct or there is an active sentence which corresponds in form. However, it is limited to transitive verbs. There is a suggestion that another type is recognized in Japanese passive sentence. In this case, the owner of the subject of a behavior is used as a subject and its object is derived from active transitive verb sentence with a structure of 「possessor+の+the object possessed」, which is called possessive passivity. In possessive passivity, as the leader of behavior has a direct influence on the object possessed, the possessor, the subject is not directly influenced by the leader of behavior.
Next, possibility of「れる」and「られる」is designed to express whether it is possible or impossible to realize the behavior when the subject of a behavior acts with his will. The conditions that descriptive verbs of basic sentence can take possible voice are as follows : the possible subject will be organic matters and they will have intention.
However, possibility of Japanese language means that natural ability and condition for realization are prepared as well as it can be realized by intention of the subject. So, men who have intention or inanimate objects which have no intention can have possibility.
The meaning of possibility can be categorized as follows: (1) action or behavior focuses on ability of the subject (2) a focus is given on external conditions action or behavior is done ① when external conditions are identified by external conditions ② when external conditions are realized.「~に」 or 「~には」·「~にも」is used as subjects of possibility. Specifically, 「~には」is used for negative sentence. Likewise, whether is decided by various factors. So, generalization in consideration of grammatical factors alone is difficult. For both possibility and passivity, which is Type 2 verb and Type 3 verb is attached by 「られる」so there are many cases it is difficult to identify which meaning the sentence have. Therefore, to identify the meanings, we have to improve knowledge on specific utterance conditions.
As studied above, it is expected this study will help learners have proper understanding of Japanese and accomplish its effective and applicable use.
Alternative Title
A study of Japanese Auxiliary Verbs 'reru''rareru'
Alternative Author(s)
Myung, Ae-Ri
조선대학교 교육대학원
교육대학원 일어교육
Awarded Date
2006. 8
Table Of Contents
Ⅰ. 序論 = 1
Ⅱ. 本論 = 4
1. 助動詞의 定義 = 4
2. 「れる」「られる」가 內包하는 諸用法 = 10
2.1. 受動 = 11
2.2. 可能 = 12
2.3. 自發 = 13
2.4. 尊敬 = 14
3. 「れる」「られる」의 受動 表現 = 16
3.1. 受動의 意味와 機能 = 16
3.2. 他動詞와 自動詞의 受動 = 19
3.2.1. 他動詞의 境遇 = 20 直接受動 = 20 間接受動 = 22 所有受動 = 23 他動詞受動의 格關係 變化 = 25
3.2.2. 自動詞의 境遇 = 32 間接受動 = 32 自動詞受動의 格關係 變化 = 33
3.3. 直接 間接 所有 受動의 相關關係 = 37
3.3.1. 直接受動과 間接受動 = 38
3.3.2. 間接受動과 所有受動 = 39
3.3.3. 直接受動과 所有受動 = 40
4. 「れる」「られる」의 可能 表現 = 43
4.1. 可能의 意味와 機能 = 44
4.2. 可能의 主體와 對象 = 47
4.3. 可能表現의 格關係 變化 = 49
4.4. 受動과의 相關關係 = 50
Ⅲ. 結論 = 54
參考文獻 = 57
英文抄錄 = 60
조선대학교 교육대학원
명애리. (2006). 日本語의 助動詞 「れる」「られる」의 硏究 : 受動·可能表現을 中心으로
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Education > Theses(Master)(교육대학원)
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