고등학교 일본어 교과서의 문화교육에 대한 연구
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- This study is to identify the concept of culture and language in respect to what meaning cultural education has in foreign language education, and cultural education at the 7th curriculum. It also analyses pictures in textbooks and culture according to different publishers through analysis of textbooks and examines distribution in each field, recognition of textbooks, degree of interest and current status of understanding, targeting Japanese teachers and students, to identify problems and solutions.
This study explains comprehensive concept of culture, and suggests that cultural education is indispensible in foreign language education because language is directly related to culture. This study combines necessity of cultural education with educational goals on culture appearing in the 7th curriculum.
In the body, this study designs to analyse cultural contents in Japanese textbooks.
First, as a result of analysing pictures inside textbooks, colored pictures on covers are 252 of 18 kinds from textbooks. Most of the kinds of pictures are related to actual living such as food, clothing, and housing cultures, and pictures relating to yearly events are the most. Pictures are arranged, focusing on basic contents on Japanese culture to help understanding. They are arranged with a focus on materials of each unit. As many visual data on cultural materials are presented, if cultural education is given along with pictures, it can help improve understanding and will lead to effective education.
Second, as a result of analysing cultural elements of each unit according to different publishers, all the 18 kinds of textbooks have special corners relating to culture. When relevancy with materials of each unit was examined, relevancy was unsatisfactory. So, as they are not enough to provide cultural education, there is a disadvantage that time only for cultural education should be assigned. They are composed of various materials extensively, but explanation is not satisfactory so that understanding is difficult with only data from textbooks. However, contents relating to living of high school students or social life help induce attention from learners and appropriate for characteristics of learners. If the data can be used for class with what lacks in textbooks supplemented beyond recognition of importance of culture, textbooks contain sufficient elements for effective learning.
After examination of cultural materials in each textbook, this study identifies problems of Japanese education and cultural education and countermeasures.
First, as a result of conducting questionnaire targeting learners, this study found that learners have more attention to Japanese education and cultural education. In consideration that educational objectives and fields learners like to prefer are speaking and culture, this study found that they recognize importance of communication and cultural education. Many learners who recognized importance of cultural education have higher attention or interest in pictures inside textbooks. Based on such higher attention, they obtained what lacks in their cultural education through the internet service.
Second, questionnaire was provided to learners and Japanese teachers. As a result, this study found that studying Japanese culture only with textbooks has limits to understanding it, they can not understand it fully through composition of textbooks and they are likely to be tired of contents which consist of traditional art or annual events. Because of hours limit and poor understanding, cultural things were neglected. Teachers suggest information is not enough. Specifically, they think that related images and data are not satisfactory.
Third, this study developed plans to solve the problems as follows:
To solve a problem of lacking data which was considered as the most serious problem, this study suggests that image data and multi-media should be developed, teachers should be given more opportunities to have teachers training, libraries should be used to obtain data, and recognition on importance of cultural education should be improved.
Cultural education is necessary for foreign language education. Language acquisition without culture can not be complete way to study language. If students learn foreign languages along with understanding of geography, history, society, practice, convention, and mind the foreign countries, the learning can be effective. Absolutely negative attitude against or blind pursuing for foreign countries can be mitigated through cultural education. If instruction is given in consideration of connection with culture, a goal of foreign language can be obtained. This study hopes that publishers and teachers who teach Japanese language should develop easier way to teach language, which will contribute to accomplishing ideal cultural education. And it is expected that this study will help cultural education further.
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